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An Tir IL dated 2012-06-13 (Jump to Submissions)

To Anthony Black Lion, Oddr Lions Blood, and the venerable College of heralds in An Tir and the known world, I send greetings from Viktor Black Talbot. This month we have 26 items appearing in the letter.

Commentary for this letter will be due by July 14th.

FROM LIONS BLOOD

Unto the College of Heralds of the Kingdom of An Tir, and unto all who read this letter, does Oddr Lions Blood send greetings!

This represents the first letter in which decisions rendered according to our new Standards have been published. It is my hope you all have found their application to be as straightforward as I have. This also represents (if my calculations are correct) the last letter where we will consider items (as needed) under the old Rules for Submission.

The next Lions Blood meetings are currently scheduled for:

- Saturday, 9 June, noon at my home in Mill Creek, WA, discussing the May IL

- Sunday, 15 July, noon at my home in Mill Creek, WA, discussing this letter

- Saturday, 25 August, at William Tell (River's Bend), discussing the July IL [tentative]

Please note that I'm departing from always being on Sunday, due to scheduling conflicts.

In addition to the Lions Blood business, since we also have the Baronial library available courtesy of Tóki Gorges, consultation is available. Further, there are about 4G of scanned, period armory available for examination. Please visit, participate, and help enrich our Society with well-documented names and armory.

Looking forward to your comments, I remain,

Oddr Lions Blood

LAUREL ACTIONS

The following is excerpted from the March 2012 Cover Letter:

From Laurel: Re: New Rules At Last!

It is our pleasure to announce that the new rules for submissions document, which we are renaming "Standards for Evaluation of Names and Armory" (SENA), was approved by the Board of Directors of the SCA, Inc. at their April meeting.

Starting with the May 2012 decision meetings, we will begin a six month transition period. Items appearing on Letters of Intent scheduled for decision between May 2012 and October 2012 will be accepted if they are registerable (that is, they meet the style, conflict, presumption, and offense requirements) of the old rules or the new standards. During this period, an item will not be registered if it partially meets the standards for each set of rules (for example, it has a conflict under the old rules and a style problem under the new rules). An item must be completely legal under one set of rules or the other. Starting with the November 2012 meeting, items will be considered only under the new standards. Any Letters of Intent originally scheduled to be considered in October or before will be considered under the rules in force for that meeting, even if they have to be rescheduled because of issues with payment or paperwork. Any items (even entire letters) which are returned for administrative reasons will not be given that consideration.

We want to thank the many people, heralds and others, who have contributed to these rules since we started this project over two and a half years ago. This project could not have happened without the time and energy of many members of the College of Arms. We particularly want to thank Juliana de Luna and Marie de Blois, who served as Palimpsests during this project. Without their work directing the project, it would never have come to fruition. We want to thank our predecessors as Laurel, Olwynn and Elisabeth, who oversaw this work. We also want to thank the many heralds who served on committees that developed and proofread drafts.

From Palimpsest: Updates to the Administrative Handbook

At the April Board meeting, in addition to the new Standards for Evaluation of Names and Armory, the Board approved a number of changes to the Administrative Handbook.

Many of these changes fixed minor inconsistencies, modified the letters in Appendix D, and brought the Administrative Handbook in alignment with already published changes in policy (such as the scanning of packets). Other changes affect the reporting and record-keeping requirements for Laurel and principal heralds/

Of general interest, the changes also clarify unclear sections, such as who signs letters, which items have fees, and the information needed in transfers. Additionally, Hitching and Hitching was added to Appendix H.

We are considering a more substantial change to the Administrative Handbook to improve its usability. Palimpsest will have more details and begin those discussions in the next few months.

From Pelican: Some Names Resources (a series): Marital Names Part 1

One issue that often comes up with submissions is how husbands and wives share (or fail to share) bynames. While it's typical in the modern world for a married couple to share a surname, this was not true in many areas of Europe in the Middle Ages.

In some languages, bynames are quite literal. Some such languages include Gaelic, Old Norse, Old English (Anglo-Saxon), Welsh, Russian, and Arabic. In these languages, patronymic bynames, which say you're someone's son or daughter, are literal. Thus, sharing a byname with your spouse suggests that you have the same father, or at least that your fathers had the same name. So in these languages, husbands and wives normally have unrelated bynames.

In some languages (including Gaelic, Russian, Old Norse, and Hungarian), there are constructions that name a woman as her husband's wife. In Gaelic, the pre-1200 word meaning "wife" is ben, while the post-1200 word is bean. It is followed by the name of her husband in the genitive (possessive) form. Names have been found using the husband's complete name, his given name, and his byname. In Russian, the word for "wife" is zhena; it normally comes after her husband's given name and before his patronymic byname, both in the "patronymic" form. More details can be found in Paul Wickenden of Thanet's A Dictionary of Period Russian Names (http://heraldry.sca.org/paul/). In Old Norse, the word for wife is kona; a byname consists of the husband's given name in the genitive (possessive) form, followed by the word kona. In Hungarian, this type of byname is formed by using the husband's entire name (surname first), with -ne attached to his given name. This byname comes first and is followed by her given name, as is typical in Hungarian.

In addition, Latinized bynames in multiple languages use uxor "wife" followed by the husband's name (usually given name only, but sometimes his complete name) in Latinized form. This grammar requires the genitive (possessive) form of the husband's name (as it's naming her as John's wife, for example). More information about marital bynames in other languages will follow later.

From Pelican: Making Heraldic Titles from Order Names

On the October 2011 Cover Letter, I asked whether we should allow heraldic titles to be created from any order names, or only some order names. We now know that there were a variety of patterns that led to period order names. Some were derived from the badges of the orders, and were derived from heraldic charges (sometimes unmodified, sometimes with a color attached, sometimes two charges together). Some were derived from regalia attached to the orders. Both of these types of order names were used to create heraldic titles in period. We therefore will continue to allow heraldic titles to be created following these patterns.

Order names are also derived from other patterns, including the names of saints, of abstract qualities, and other complex constructions (like Michael Archangel, Saint Georges Shield, Green Shield with the White Lady, or Our Lady of the Noble House). These other patterns do not seem to have been used to create heraldic titles. Heraldic titles that follow these patterns will not be registered without further evidence that they follow a specific pattern for heraldic titles, not only order names.

From Pelican: Summaries and Why they Matter

We ask that submissions heralds pay more attention to the summaries of the forms in OSCAR. Recently, there have been a rash of submissions in which changes made at kingdom were not summarized. It's important that even very small changes to the name (changes to accents or to capitalization) be summarized in OSCAR. If changes are made to the name on the form before it is received by kingdom, that should be noted either in the summary or in a note to the sovereigns. Otherwise, the Laurel office will have to contact you to find out when and how those changes were made. As we have relaxed the requirement that all changes be made on the forms, this is even more important. Now, that summary is the only way we can know that changes are intentional and not just a typo on the letter of intent.

In addition, it's important that authenticity requests and the changes that submitters allow be accurately included in OSCAR. While we try not to return or pend items unnecessarily, we depend on commenters to help us figure out what authentic forms would be and what possible forms of a name might be registerable given the changes the submitter allows. If commenters don't know about these requests, they can't respond to them. And that leads to Pelican having to do extra research or having to pend items for the commenters to do more research. Either of these makes for a cranky Pelican. So, keep us happy and check your summaries.

From Wreath: Krakens and Squids and Octopuses, Oh My!

The term kraken, especially as applied to a giant squid, appears to date no earlier than the eighteenth century. Research provided by Ursula Green Staff states:

...it looks like neither <squid> nor <octopus> was used in our period: the first instance of <squid> in the OED is dated to 1613 (the etymology is "of obscure origin"), and the first use of <octopus> is eighteenth-century.

Words for types of squid found in English in our period are <calamarie> (dated to 1567 under <calamary>, n.) and <cuttle> or <cuttle fish> (dated in this spelling s.v. <cuttle> n. to 1598 and 1591, but in other forms as early as c. 1000). I also found this interesting quotation from 1635:

The Calamarie is sometimes called the Sea-clerk, having as it were a knife and a pen. Some call him the Ink-horn-fish.

As regards octopuses, it seems that in English at least there was no distinction drawn in period between octopuses, with eight tentacles, and squid and cuttlefish, with ten tentacles. The word <polypus>, meaning a cephalopod having either eight or ten tentacles, is dated in that spelling to 1578, and in other forms to at least 1527.

As we desire to use period terms whenever possible, based on this research we will no longer use the blazon term kraken, but will instead use calamarie or cuttle-fish to describe squid. Due to the similarity with the modern word, we will use the blazon term polypus to describe the octopus. The SCA default orientations remain the same, with polypus defaulting to tentacles to base, and calamarie defaulting to tentacles to chief. There is no difference granted for type, only for orientation.

We may, on a case by case basis, retain the use of the modern terms for items already registered in order to preserve a cant.

From Wreath: Testicles

This month we were asked to consider two badges which used testicles as a charge. These items generated a great amount of discussion on whether or not the charge runs afoul of our ban on vulgar armory. Testicles are a period charge, used in the arms of Bartolomeo Colleoni (c. 1395/1400-1475). However, we have refused to register some period heraldic charges due to perception of modern offensiveness. As rulings on offensive armory are quite rare, we want to reassure readers that both Wreath and Laurel read the arguments both for and against, and the decision was a joint one.

The General Principles section of the Rules for Submissions, I.2 Offense, reads, "No name or armory will be registered that may be offensive to a significant segment of the Society or the general population." Section IX.1, Vulgar Armory, goes further to state, "Pornographic or scatological items or designs will not be registered. Obscene images, sexually explicit material, bathroom or toilet humor, etc. are considered inherently offensive by a large segment of the Society and general population."

Commenters argued that we have registered such charges as a woman's breast previously without claims of offense, and this is so. While we do not habitually blazon such details, we do not hesitate to register animals obviously pizzled, either. However, pizzling is typically a subtle, but natural and expected detail on an animal, and the heraldic styling of a single breast is far from offensive, particularly when we also register without hesitation bare-chested mermaids. Commenters argued that most non-heralds would identify this charge as a leaf of some sort, or possibly a heart inverted. This charge was shown, without comment, to several large groupings of non-heralds in the SCA, and the vast majority, if not all, immediately identified it correctly.

We must keep in mind that our rules against offensiveness and vulgarity include "the general population". While there is nothing that describes heraldic testicles as being human as opposed to animal, the general population still tends to draw a line at openly displaying anything "south of the border". Members of the SCA may understand that this is a period heraldic charge, but we are inclined to pay attention to the rest of General Principle I.2, which reads "No submission will be registered that is detrimental to the educational purposes or good name of the Society, or the enjoyment of its participants because of offense that may be caused, intentionally or unintentionally, by its use." Until a significant segment of the general population would not be offended by seeing testicles in armory, we will not register this charge.

From Wreath: Even More: Roundels and Penguins and Roses

Three other precedents of note were set this month.

Firstly, due to the potential confusion with other charges, roundels with complex lines will not be registered after the September 2012 meeting without evidence of period practice.

Secondly, when considering the categories of birds set forth on the November 2003 Cover Letter, we have decided that penguin-shaped birds, by which we mean penguins and auks, when depicted in their default upright close posture are substantially different from all other birds. The use of a penguin is still a step from period practice.

Thirdly, a submission provoked a discussion of various period depictions of roses. A heraldic rose has typically five petals, occasionally six, or even four in Italian heraldry as seen in Stemmario Trivulziano. Documentation proved that long stems and leaves are completely unremarkable with an otherwise heraldic rose.

Certainly multi-petaled natural roses existed in period, most notably the Damask rose and the Apothecary's rose; however, the cabbage rose is modern. Roses in period heraldry, even when depicted more naturalistically, are always shown affronty, not in profile, and even the more naturalistic multi-petaled depictions use five main petals around the outside edge, with the other petals as internal detail.

Therefore, the use of a depiction of a modern rose in profile is now a step from period practice. There is no difference granted between a modern rose in profile and a heraldic rose, and the difference will not be blazoned as we would prefer to encourage the use of heraldic roses instead.

From Wreath: Policy on Redraws

With the advent of OSCAR and quicker feedback about a submission, artwork concerns are coming to light much faster. A concerned submissions herald might be tempted to act upon the feedback and do a redraw of the armory, submitting new forms before the close of commentary. However, this is not the best way to handle the issue. The emblazon on the Letter of Intent on OSCAR must match the submitted paperwork, and commenters need to be sure they are commenting on the correct item, not a potentially-redrawn item. It is also worth remembering that images posted in commentary are not publicly viewable, only the original emblazon.

Therefore, if an item needs to be redrawn while still in commentary, it should be withdrawn by noting such as a correction. The redrawn item, approved by the submitter, should then be resubmitted on a new letter. Keep in mind that a kingdom may have multiple letters in a given month.

Occasionally errors happen when a Letter of Intent is published. If an image is completely incorrect, it may be replaced within seven days of publication of the Letter of Intent. Past that, it should be withdrawn and resubmitted.

If the emblazon on OSCAR and the submitted paperwork differ, the item may be administratively returned. Wreath has discretion to waive this policy as needed on a case by case basis.

The following is excerpted from the April 2012 Cover Letter:

From Laurel: Re: New Rules At Last!

In the March 2012 LoAR Cover Letter, we announced that "the new rules for submissions document, which we are renaming 'Standards for Evaluation of Names and Armory' (SENA), was approved by the Board of Directors of the SCA, Inc. at their April meeting." We announced that, starting with the May meetings, items would be registered if they were acceptable under either the previous Rules for Submission or under SENA.

Twelve submissions ruled on in April would be returned for conflict under the RfS but are registerable with no style or conflict issues under SENA. In light of the fact that these submissions would very likely have been resubmitted, we have opted to save submitters' and submissions heralds' time and headaches and are pending these submissions for one month. They will therefore be considered for registration on the May 2012 LoAR.

From Pelican: Norse Capitalization

In October 2002, Laurel ruled (in a Cover Letter Section titled "From Pelican: Regarding Capitalization in Norse Bynames") that we would require most descriptive bynames to be written in lowercase in Old Norse. This upheld precedent that had existed since at least April 2000. The basis of this precedent was the ways in which modern scholarly transliteration treats descriptive bynames in Old Norse.

In January 2012 we asked for further discussion of this issue. The reason for revisiting this issue was based on the ways in which our standards have changed: we register Old Norse documentary forms (though not runic ones) and relatively casual transliterations, as well as modern scholarly transliterations. Additionally, more and more books, documents, and the like are available online, which allows us to look at evidence that was not available when the original decisions were made.

Based on the data found by commenters, we can say that capitalization in period Latin alphabet documents was uneven, with some capitalizing no elements and others capitalizing only given names and bynames derived from given names. Modern transliterations vary as well. Scholarly ones tend to use the convention of capitalizing given names but leaving descriptive bynames in lowercase. Less formal ones vary, with some rendering all name elements in uppercase, with only in(n) "the", son and dottir in lowercase.

Given this evidence, we are removing the requirement that descriptive bynames in Old Norse be registered only in lowercase. Descriptive bynames will be registered either in uppercase or in lowercase. This matches our usage in other languages, where we render most name elements in uppercase, although many documents are written only in lowercase.

We note that submitters whose bynames were changed under the old precedent who prefer the capitalized form may make a request for reconsideration.

From Pelican: Tinctures and Other Descriptive Words in Order Names and Heraldic Titles

In January 2012, we asked commenters to consider the current precedent regarding the use of color words in order names. In February 2003, Pelican ruled that "no evidence has been found that heraldic tinctures (rather than common color terms such as bleu) were used in order names." Since that time, our knowledge of period order names and heraldic titles has expanded considerably, in large part due to articles like my "Heraldic Titles from the Middle Ages and Renaissance" (found at http://medievalscotland.org/jes/HeraldicTitlesSCA/index.shtml) and my "Medieval Secular Order Names" (found at http://medievalscotland.org/jes/OrderNames/ or at http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/order/new/).

The color terms used in order names and heraldic titles are summarized in the May 2009 Cover Letter. They are the everyday terms for heraldic tinctures, mostly in French, but also in German, English, and Spanish.

Several French terms are identical to the terms used for heraldic tinctures, including vert, or, and argent (which is found in sign names but not order names). This means that half the colors used in order names (vert, or and argent) are at least sometimes identical to the heraldic terms. Even vaire is found in French inn signs. Similarly, early blazon seems to have sometimes used the everyday color terms rouge and noir. Given the variability in the use of heraldic and everyday terms, and the confusion this causes for submitters and commenters, we are hereby allowing the use of heraldic color terms in order names as well as the everyday terms. However, no convincing evidence has been presented for the use of non-heraldic color names, including the names for particular shades of a color, like scarlet or crimson.

There was relatively little commentary on the use of terms for posture and orientation. As such, we will not at this time rule on whether the patterns found for such terms in inn sign names should be extended to order names and heraldic titles. The question will be revisited when a relevant submission appears.

From Pelican: Mac and O bynames

In Gaelic and Anglicized Irish, one question that often arises is when bynames constructed using mac can be used to create bynames using O and vice versa (recalling that in Gaelic, mac and O are only used in men's bynames). The reason one cannot simply treat the two as interchangeable is that each type of byname has different limitations.

Bynames using mac "son of" were formed throughout our period. They were formed from given names and from a few types of bynames, most notably occupational bynames. Bynames using O "male descendant (usually grandson)" were formed from the 7th to the 11th century; then they became frozen as inherited family names. These names were formed from a variety of kinds of bynames as well as given names.

So, what does this mean in terms of construction and documentation? Most of our documentation for bynames is from the 16th century. If you have a byname documented using mac and want to use it to justify a byname using O, you need to find evidence that the name was in use by the 11th century. Otherwise, the name came into use too late in period to justify its use in a byname using O. If you have a byname using O and want to use it to justify a byname using mac, you need to know what kind of element it is. If it's a given name, you can make a byname using mac from it. Some occupational bynames can be used to create a byname using mac. Other kinds of bynames using O, including elements that we cannot identify as either a given name or an occupational byname, cannot be used to create a byname using mac.

From Wreath: Crescents and Things

Commenters were asked to discuss how we should blazon the period motif of charges combined with crescents. Placing items between the horns of a crescent is a period heraldic motif. Richard I of England used it as a seal, currently listed in Society armory as the badge (Tinctureless) An estoile between the horns of a crescent, a style of badge that was likely brought back from the East during the Crusades. The family of Percy had as a badge within the horns of a crescent a pair of shacklebolts. Other examples have been found in period armory of other objects set just above or within a crescent.

Discussion on this motif, informed by the recent discussion, past precedent regarding charges within annulets, and precedent set on the February 2012 Cover Letter regarding sustained secondary charges, has led us to make the following rulings. When considering a charge set between the horns or a crescent or encompassed entirely within the crescent:

  • the crescent is the main charge, as it is typically the larger charge

  • if the other charge is entirely within the crescent, it is a maintained charge, and will be blazoned with the term within to emphasize its lesser importance. For example, within [and conjoined to] a crescent an X.

  • if the other charge is placed between the horns of the crescent but extends beyond the bounds of the crescent, it is either a co-primary charge or a secondary charge, depending on the relative sizes of the two charges, and will be blazoned with the term between the horns according to current practice for co-primary and secondary charges. If the charge is conjoined to the crescent and would be considered a secondary charge under this ruling, it is therefore considered a sustained secondary charge. For example, in pale an X between [and conjoined to] the horns of a crescent is a co-primary group. For example, between [and conjoined to] the horns of a crescent an X or a crescent sustaining between its horns an X is a primary crescent and a secondary X.

Whether two charges are conjoined or not does not count for difference, only their relative sizes and position. When a primary crescent and a secondary charge are present in a design where they would be expected to be in a secondary or tertiary charge group, the crescent and charge will both be considered part of the same group.

From Wreath: Mullets and Estoiles, Take Two

Commenters were asked to discuss whether or not we should continue giving difference for the number of points on a mullet or estoile, and how they should be considered versus suns.

Research into period depictions of all three charges was enlightening. While most estoiles are of six wavy rays, some were found with more; none were found with less. Mullets were found with any number of points, most typically between five and eight. Suns were typically found with both wavy and straight rays, but examples were found of suns with only straight rays and of suns with only wavy rays; suns never had less than eight rays. In all cases, various depictions of the same arms in period showed that the number of points or rays largely did not matter.

Past precedent has granted difference between some numbers of points on mullets. Based on the research commenters provided, it seems that this precedent is rather contrary to period armorial style, and in the interest of moving SCA armory closer to period style we are hereby overturning that precedent and making the following rulings:

  • we will continue to grant difference between mullets, with all straight rays, and estoiles, with all wavy rays

  • suns with fewer than eight projections (points or rays or a combination) will not be registered

  • there is no difference granted between mullets of any number of points

  • there is no difference granted between estoiles of any number of points

  • an estoile or mullet of seven or fewer points will be granted difference from a sun

  • a mullet of eight or more points is equivalent to a sun and will not be granted difference from a sun

  • an estoile of eight or more rays is equivalent to a sun and will not be granted difference from a sun

As this does overturn current precedent, these rulings will take effect as of the November 2012 Laurel meeting.

From Wreath: Labels

A submission this month caused us to reconsider how we blazon labels in SCA armory. Past precedent says:

[a label dovetailed throughout] A peculiarity of SCA blazon is that the standard label is throughout by default, but the dovetailed label is couped by default. The blazon in this submission label is both dovetailed and throughout, and both these details must be blazoned. [Kharra Unegen, 07/2002, A-Atenveldt]

After some research, much provided by Gunnvor silfraharr, we see no reason why the specific details of a label need to be blazoned, as the depictions vary only slightly over different times and cultures. There has never been difference granted between labels throughout or not, or dovetailed or not, and we see no need to change that. Therefore, we will cease blazoning the exact style of label, and leave the specific stylings up to artistic preference.

Laurel registered the following items in March 2012:

Eleanor de Martineau. Name.

Emma Compton. Device. Per fess azure and Or, two domestic cats passant addorsed with tails entwined Or and a rose azure barbed and seeded proper.

Geoffrey Fitz Henrie. Reblazon of device. Per chevron throughout sable and gules, a calamarie and in chief two broad-arrows inverted argent.

Blazoned when registered in December 2002 as Per chevron throughout sable and gules, a kraken and in chief two broad arrows inverted argent, we are reblazoning the kraken as a calamarie in order to use a period term for the creature.

Killian of Lyonsmarche. Holding name and device. Per saltire sable and gules, on a saltire counterchanged fimbriated Or, two rapiers inverted proper, a bordure Or.

Please advise to widen both the fimbriation and the bordure.

Submitted under the name Killian Flynn, that name was returned on the November 2011 LoAR.

Midhaven, Shire of. Household name Company of the Tulip (see RETURNS for badges).

Midhaven, Shire of. Household name Inn of the Silver Tulip.

Reitz von Landesehre. Name.

The temporal gap between the 16th century given name and the 12th century locative byname is a step from period practice.

Sibilla Chantrell. Name and device. Gules, a horse passant contourny and on a chief argent a fleur-de-lis between two crosses formy gules.

Submitted as Sibilla Chantrelle, no evidence was presented nor could any be found for the spelling of the byname. The closest documented spelling was Chantrell, dated to 1581 in the IGI Parish record extracts. We have changed it to the documented form in order to register the name.

The submitter has permission to conflict with the device of Sylvia du Vey, Per pale purpure and vert, a horse passant contourny and on a chief argent an arrow inverted bendwise sinister between two fleurs-de-lys inverted purpure.

Tola Séamestre. Name.

Submitted as Tola Séamestre, the name was changed at kingdom to Tole Semestre to match the documentation that kingdom could find. Gunnvor silfraharr was able to find the spelling Tola in 1044, while the byname is found in the submitted spelling as a late Old English-early Middle English spelling. Therefore we can restore the submitted spellings. The submitted form even matches the submitter's request for authenticity for the late 11th century (though it's typical of pre-1066 spellings).

Volk the Grey. Name (see RETURNS for device).

The byname is the lingua Anglica form of the Russian byname Sedoi. While the literal translation is "grey," the form "the grey" is also a reasonable translation of such a byname.

Laurel registered the following items in April 2012:

Andrew of Dragon's Mist. Reblazon of device. Sable, between the horns of a crescent argent a wolf's head erased Or and on a chief argent three mullets sable.

Blazoned when registered in October 1994 as Sable, a wolf's head erased Or between the horns of a crescent and on a chief argent three mullets sable, the crescent is the primary charge, with the wolf's head a secondary charge.

Anne Midwinter. Name.

Cerridwen Maelwedd. Reblazon of device. Vert, between the horns of a crescent argent a sea-lion statant Or, a chief embattled ermine.

Blazoned when registered in January 1995 as Vert, a sea lion statant Or within the horns of a crescent argent and a chief embattled ermine, the crescent is the primary charge and the sea-lion is a secondary charge.

Dýrfinna þeysir. Name.

Edmund Halliday Device. Or, semy of trefoil knots inverted azure, a crane close contourny sable within an orle vert.

Electra de Flora. Reblazon of device. Per bend purpure and gules, a crescent bendwise sinister and a cinquefoil and between the horns of the crescent a mullet argent.

Blazoned when registered in November 1988 as Per bend purpure and gules, in bend sinister a mullet bendwise sinister between the horns of a crescent bendwise and a cinquefoil, all argent, the crescent and cinquefoil are primary charges, with the mullet a secondary charge.

Electra de Flora. Reblazon of badge. Per bend purpure and gules, between the horns of a crescent bendwise sinister a mullet, a bordure argent.

Blazoned when registered in November 1988 as Per bend purpure and gules, a mullet bendwise sinister between the horns of a crescent bendwise, all within a bordure argent, the crescent is the primary charge and the mullet is a secondary charge.

Elena Anne of Lostwithiel. Reblazon of badge. (Fieldless) Between the horns of and conjoined to a crescent a rose purpure.

Blazoned when registered in January 1993 as (Fieldless) A rose within and conjoined to a crescent purpure, this is a primary crescent and a secondary rose.

Feradach mac Tralin mec Domongairt. Name (see RETURNS for device).

Submitted as Feradach MacTralin MecDomongart, the name had several small issues. First, in Gaelic, there is a space between the relationship word (mac/mec) and the patronym. In this structure, these words are also written in lowercase. Second, Domongart is the nominative form the name; the required form in this position is a genitive (possessive) form that is lenited. That form is Domongairt. We have made those changes in order to register the name.

Meagan ferch Meredydd. Badge. (Fieldless) On a coronet argent an acorn inverted slipped and leaved proper.

The submitter is a duchess and thus entitled to display a coronet.

Sabine d'Angers. Badge. (Fieldless) On an open book purpure a bee proper.

Tole Semestre. Device. Per chevron vert and azure, three needles bendwise sinister and a pawprint argent.

Please advise the submitter to draw the needles thicker, so that they are easier to identify.

There is a step from period practice for the use of a pawprint.

Ulfr hrafn. Name.

Submitted as Wulfhrafn of Cimbri, the name was changed at kingdom to Hrafna-Úlfr of the Cimbri. The submitter then indicated that he would prefer the form Ulfrhrafn of the Cimbri.

The name Ulfrhrafn was not documented. No evidence could be found that a dithemic name using -hrafn as a second element existed in Old Norse. However, this could be registered as a given name Ulfr and a byname hrafn.

No evidence was presented nor could any be found that the term Cimbri or even the group was still in use by the time Old Norse comes into use. Without such evidence, this combination of name elements cannot be registered. Therefore we have dropped the locative byname in order to register the name.

Laurel returned the following items for further work in March 2012:

Killian of Lyonsmarche. Household name Clan Mac Thoye.

Effric "A Brief, Incomplete, and Rather Stopgap Article about European Household and Other Group Names Before 1600: Scotland - Clans (in Scots)" (http://medievalscotland.org/names/eurohouseholds/scotlandclansinscots.shtml) describes the use of Scots bynames like Makdonel in late period clan names. The same usage is plausible for Anglicized Irish bynames.

The submitter included documentation for an Anglicized Irish family name O Toye and creates a plausible argument for alternate spelling O Thoye. However, no argument was made that Mac Toye is plausible; descriptive bynames were used to create bynames using O but were not generally used to create bynames using mac. A Gaelic byname mac Thauthaigh is registerable. From it, we can create an Anglicized Irish byname Mac Thowie which could be used to construct a household name.

As there are several possible solutions, we are returning this name to allow the submitter to consider his options: these include Clan Mac Thowie and Clan O Thoye.

Submitted under the name Killian Flynn.

Midhaven, Shire of. Badge for Company of the Tulip. (Fieldless) A tulip slipped and leaved within and conjoined to a mascle argent.

This badge is returned for conflict with the device of Benef{s,}e al-Rashida, Azure, a lotus blossom in profile within a mascle argent. There is one CD for fieldlessness, but no difference is granted between a lotus blossom in profile and a tulip, both cup-shaped flowers.

Midhaven, Shire of. Badge for the populace. Per chevron azure and sable, a tulip slipped and leaved argent.

This badge is returned for conflict with the device of Katja Dara, Per chevron vert and sable, a lotus flower in profile argent, and with the badge of Arabella Cleophea Winterhalter, Purpure, ermined Or, a lotus blossom in profile argent. In both cases there is a CD for the change of field, but no difference is granted between a lotus blossom in profile and a tulip, both cup-shaped flowers.

This badge is not in conflict with the badge of Eden of Lionsguard, Purpure, an iris argent [Iris germanica]. In addition to the CD for change of field, there is at least a CD between an iris and a tulip.

Nogg Gabryel. Device. Per bend gules and sable, a bend argent and overall in pale an annulet enflamed on the outer edge sustained by a gauntlet aversant Or charged on the cuff with a compass star sable.

This device is returned for violating section VIII.1.a. Tincture and Charge Limit, which says "As a rule of thumb, the total of the number of tinctures plus the number of types of charges in a design should not exceed eight." This device has a complexity count of nine, with four tinctures (gules, sable, argent, Or) and five types of charge (bend, annulet, flames, gauntlet, compass star); while allowances may be given for good period style, this submission does not fit that criteria. Removing the bend entirely would likely be the easiest change to make, and be far better style; most overall charges in period were ordinaries, not a complex group of charges like this. Please advise the submitter that the enflaming would be more identifiable if it were fewer spurts of flames issuant from the annulet.

There is a step from period practice for the use of a compass star.

Volk the Grey. Device. Vert, a wolf sejant ululant between seven mullets, three, two and two argent.

This device is returned for violating section VII.7.b of the Rules for Submissions, which requires that "Elements must be reconstructible in a recognizable form from a competent blazon." This spacing of the mullets would perhaps be better blazoned as in chief five mullets three and two and in base two mullets, but that requires two separate secondary groups of identical charges, which is problematic at best, and still doesn't adequately describe the placement. Therefore, as a suitable blazon could not be found, this must be returned. Spacing the mullets more regularly around the wolf would solve the problem; either specifically seven mullets or an unnumbered orle of mullets would work, and in either case the submitter's desire for three mullets in chief would be fulfilled.

There is a step from period practice for the use of the ululant posture.

Laurel returned the following items for further work in April 2012:

Feradach mac Tralin mec Domongairt. Device. Per chevron gules and sable, a snake coiled erect argent and in chief a sword and glaive in chevron Or.

This device is returned for violating section VIII.3 of the Rules for Submissions, which requires that "Elements must be used in a design so as to preserve their individual identifiability...Identifiable elements may be rendered unidentifiable by significant reduction in size..." In this case, the glaive in particular is so small that commenters had difficulty identifying whether it was a glaive, a spear, or perhaps a needle. Both the sword and the glaive should be drawn somewhat larger in order to be identifiable.

LIONS BLOOD ACTIONS

The following items have been forwarded to Laurel:

Eobhan Dunbar. New Name & New Device. Vert, on a chevron throughout argent five broad arrow heads inverted sable, in base a serpent involved, head to base, argent..

While commenters raised concern about the registerability of the chevron depicted, per the May 2011 cover letter:

Chevrons etc. move based on the position of secondaries: allowances will be made for times when the charges around or above and below interfere with the placement. A chevron etc. between three charges should be in the same place on the field as a chevron with no charges on the field, but a chevron below a single charge fesswise, or a chevron below a group of charges in fess, may be further down the field. A chevron etc. placed above a single charge or group of charges in base may be further up on the field.

The chevron here straddles the available space. The question remains about whether the serpent involved must be reduced (a different question from whether it can be reduced which I believe is certain, taking care to maintain the identifiability of the serpent's head).

Isabeau d'Orange. New Name Change From Holding Name.

Kattera Giese. New Name & New Device. Sable, a bear passant gardant argent, in canton a compass star Or..

vs Alan Silverbear, "Sable, in base a polar bear statant proper. [Thalarctos maritimus]":

•SENA A5G2: grants a DC through addition of secondary charge group

•SENA A5G6: grants a DC because arrangement of the primary charge group in Silverbear is not forced

vs Arthur FitzRobert of Wiverneweald, "Per bend azure and argent, a bear statant and a mullet of six points counterchanged":

•SENA A5G1: grants a DC for the difference of field

•SENA A5G3: grants a DC for the tincture of the mullet

Madhu Dugdhapheni. New Name.

No commentary was forthcoming for this item. However, the core citations would appear reasonable if the words themselves were dated to period. I ask the College's assistance in this matter.

Radmund of Midloe Grange. New Device. Azure, a cross potent argent, a bordure counter-compony argent and azure.

We find the following precedents relevant:

[Sable mulletty, a jara rune within a bordure denticulada argent.] "A bordure compony may share a tincture with the field [...]" [Janina Krakowska, R-Feb 2006]

[A cross crosslet fleury vs a cross couped and vs a crux stellata] In both cases there is a CD between the crosses, but not a complete difference of charge. [William of Weir, R-Jul 1996]

vs Eureka Flag, "Azure, a crux stellata argent.":

•SENA A5G4: grants a DC for the difference between stellata and potent

•SENA A5G2: grants a DC for adding the secondary charge group

vs Greece, "Azure, a cross couped argent.":

•SENA A5G4: grants a DC for the difference between couped and potent

•SENA A5G2: grants a DC for adding the secondary charge group

That a cross potent isn't in itself clear of a crux stellata or cross couped is inferred.

Rowland Greene. New Name & New Device. Per pale sable and argent, in fess two groups of three roundels each 1 and 2 counterchanged.

vs Roland Grey:

•SENA PN3C3: Substantial Change of Single-Syllable Name Phrase

Two names with a comparable single-syllable name phrase are eligible for this rule...Comparable single-syllable name phrases are generally substantially different in sound if a group of adjacent vowels or of adjacent consonants within a word are completely changed, so that it shares no sound in common. The change of a single letter is sufficient for two eligible name phrases to be different in appearance, as such name phrases are quite short.

Aryanhwy explains the application: "Because <Greene> has a consonant in a place which <Grey> has none, these are substantially different in sound. Because at least one letter has changed, they are substantially different in appearance."

vs William of York, "Per pale sable and argent, a roundel counterchanged."

•SENA A5E3: clear for number of charges in primary charge group

However, this may run afoul of SENA A6F, with the appearance of marshalling. However, all charges are identical, and the charges on either side of the partition are in identical arrangement, which mitigates the appearance. Whether it mitigates sufficiently we leave for Wreath's wisdom.

When considered per the RfS, this item should still be clear of William, though it may or may not still be considered marshalling, which question we leave to Wreath to decide.

Rowland Greene. New badge. Per pale sable and argent, three roundels 1 and 2 counterchanged.

vs William of York, "Per pale sable and argent, a roundel counterchanged."

•SENA A5E3: clear for number of charges in primary charge group

Tymme Lytefelow. New Name & New Device. Per bend sinister azure and argent, a comet bendwise sinister inverted argent and a lighthouse azure enflamed proper.

Tymme Lytefelow. New Badge. (Fieldless) A dromedary rampant sable.

Commentary remarked on the nicely-rendered posture of a dromedary rampant.

A white gel pen to touch up the interior details would be a good note, though the distinctive shape of a dromedary greatly mitigates any identifiability issues common in other charges.

Ysabella Greene. New Name & New Device. Per pale argent and azure, on a roundel two frogs sejant respectant counterchanged.

vs Elizabeth Greene:

•SENA PN3C1: clear -- Elizabeth and Ysabella differ by two syllables

We suggest this at least partially voids precedent:

[Isabeau de Castille] Conflict with Isabella, Queen of Castile. Isabeau is simply the French for Elizabeth, just as Isabella is the Spanish. The two names are exact equivalents. [Isabeau de Castille, R - Trimaris, Jan 1991]

[Isabel de Fleur] This conflicts with Elizabeth de Fleury. Elizabeth and Isabel are used interchangeably in 15th century England and thus conflict. The difference in sound and appearance between Fleury and Fleur is not enough to keep them from conflicting. This name could be registered with a letter of permission to conflict. [Isabel de Fleur, R - AEthelmearc, Jul 2010]

Ysabella Greene. New Badge. Per pale azure and argent, two frogs sejant respectant counterchanged.

vs Cecilia of Dun Carraig, "Per pale azure and argent, in bend sinister two frogs sejant affronty counterchanged."

•SENA A5E4: clear by change of arrangement (in bend sinister vs in fess)

The following items have been returned for further work:

Beak Bell of Dumfries. - New Badge. (Fieldless) A mushroom argent, cap spotted sable.

This item is returned for conflict.

vs Deborah the Wanderer, "Purpure, a mushroom argent."

•SENA A5G1e: grants a DC for fieldless vs fielded

•No other DCs found.

Madhu Dugdhapheni. - New Device. Per chevron inverted Or and sable, a goutte d'Or.

This item is returned for conflict.

vs Iulstan Sigewealding, "(Fieldless) A goutte d'Or."

•SENA A5G1e: grants a DC for fieldless vs fielded

•No other DCs found.

Modifying the submission to "Sable, a goutte and a chief triangular Or." may clear conflict, though we encourage the submitter to verify with a conflict check before resubmission.

Thora Husewyf. - New device. Azure, a bull rampant argent maintaining a lute Or.

This item is returned for conflict.

Per the Feb 2012 CL:

Touching charges where the held charge is obviously less than half of the visual weight of the holding charge will be considered maintained charges, and not count for difference. Such arrangements will be blazoned as in recent practice, with the holding charge first and using the term maintaining. For example, a X maintaining a Y.

vs Alessandro of Tir Ysgithr, "Azure, a bull rampant and a chief indented argent"

•SENA A5G2: grants a DC for removing the chief

•No other DCs found.

vs Edward of Blackthorn, "Per pale pean and gules, a bull rampant argent"

•SENA A5G2: DC for removing the chief

•No other DCs found.

Cursory inspection of the O&A didn't reveal any instances of lutes and bulls as co-primaries, which may grant DCs for type of primary charge group and may clear conflict, though we encourage the submitter to verify with a conflict check before resubmission.

1: Adiantum, Barony of - Resub Appeal of Laurel Return of Order Name

Order of Courtesy of Adiantum

• No major changes.

Submitter cares most about spelling.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

The Barony's name was registered in April 1976.

This order name follows the pattern of "orders named for virtues" as shown in "Medieval Secular Order Names" by Juliana de Luna (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/order/new/).

A 13th/14th c. Tree of Virtues (http://beinecke.library.yale.edu/speculum/pages-translated/3v.jpg) shows the virtue of "pleasantness" as a subset of "charity".

Merriam-Webster, under the header "Amiability", lists "pleasantness", "politeness", and "courtesy" as synonyms. "Courtesy" and and "pleasantness" are therefore also synonymous, both with a meaning of "amiability". We believe then that "courtesy" should be an appropriate word for "pleasantness" to adequately describe the virtue listed in the period Tree of Virtues. (http://www.merriam-webster.com/thesaurus/amiability). This definition is also supported by the definitions within the MED, s.n. courteisie (n.) - 2. (a) Refinement of manners; gentlemanly or courteous conduct; courtesy, politeness, etiquette; rules ~, ?modesty, restraint; for no ~, out of any consideration for politeness; ! rises, a question of propriety arises; (b) a courteous or considerate act; don ~, be courteous; shouen short ~, show little courtesy; seien ~, make proper suggestion; (c) conduct, behavior. (http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/m/mec/med-idx?type=id?id=MED10060). It is also supported by the definition in the OED, s.n. courtesy, n, which dates to a1225: a. Courteous behaviour; courtly elegance and politeness of manners; graceful politeness or considerateness in intercourse with others.

This submission was returned by Laurel in August 2010 for conflict with various other orders of courtesy. The Principality has been waiting to resubmit under the new rules as branch names are now permitted to clear conflict and the submission is no longer in conflict.

2: Agmundr Glúmsson - New Name

Submitter's Branch is Blatha an Oir.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

My Proposed name is Agmundr Glúmsson, my research into Viking names led me to The Viking Answer Lady vikinganswerlady.com. She seems to have done her research into Viking Men's Names and attached is a copy of her research on both Agmundr and the Glúm part of Glúmsson.

Additional refernce to Agmundr in Lena Peterson's "Nordic runnamnslexikon" (http://.sofi.se/servlet/GetDoc?meta_id=1472). Attached are Title Page 1 and 2 of the PDF.

Additional refernce to Glúmsson [Geirr Bassi] Haraldsson. The Old Norse Name. from the No Photocopy List.

2: Agmundr Glúmsson - New Device

Blue and green quartered field with a silver runic combination of Ingwaz, Ansuz, and Tiwaz (meaning love of family, wisdom, and leadership respectively) centered.

3: Cora da Monte - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.

Submitter's branch is Three Mountains.

Submitter attached lists of names to the submission to show documentation for the name components.

Italian names from Imola, 1312

(http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/italian/imolafcmalph.html)

Fourteenth Century Venetian Personal Names

(http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/venice14/venice14sur.html)

4: Ermelina de Carville - Resub Appeal of Laurel Return of Name Change From Holding Name

Old Item: Ermelina of Dragon's Mist, to be released.

• Submitter desires a female name.
• No major changes.
• Client requests authenticity for 12th century French Norman.
• Sound (12th century Norman) most important.

Submitter's branch is Dragon's Mist.

Item was returned in January 2012 for further work as it conflicted under the then current rules to its diminutive form.

Submitter marked the box to retain the old item, but a Holding Name cannot be retained. The submission was modified to reflect this.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

Place name found in the 1292 census of Paris; URL found at http://www.elipsis.cx/~liana/names/french/1292paris.pdf

Other documentation found in the Academy of St. Gabriel report #3009

See attached.

5: Finnr Bjarki - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• No holding name.
• No major changes.
• Client requests authenticity for 8th Century Norse.

Submitter's branch is Bitter End.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

The Herald HL Arwyn of Leicester consulted her resources; books, internet. She informed me that this name is documentable.

5: Finnr Bjarki - New Device

Vert, A Pall Inverted Sable Fimbriated Or, Three Bears Heads Erased Or.

6: Halldórr Jólgeirsson - New Name

Submitter's branch is Aquaterra.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

Halldórr - Geir Bassi p10

Jólgeirsson - patronymic, Jólgeirr (Geirr Bassi p12)

formed per GB p17

7: James MacCarrig - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• No major changes.
• Meaning (of the rock from rock son of rock) most important.

Submitter's branch is Myrgan Wood.

Submitter entered "Hamish MacCarrig" in the Society Name field on the form, but this name was never registered by the submitter as confirmed by Black Talbot. Filing Name field changed to reflect the name being submitted.

Submitter also submitted pages from "The Dictionary of Irish Family Names" by Ida Grehan whcih reference roots from the desired surname.

The following is quoted from the attached documentation sheet:

James: should need none as it predates Christ

MacCarrig: origin Scottish Most likely the district in Ayrshire Carrick earliest date found 1224 "Duncan Karryc witnessed a charters by Maldowen Earl of Lennox" variations Carrick Karryc, Karrik Carric, Carrig, MacCarrick. Irish - Concharraigh, Mac Concharraigh, Carrigue.

Meaning: Scots/Gaelic for rock

It is most likely that the Scots went to Ireland as mercenaries which would explain the names existence on that island.

7: James MacCarrig - New Device

On a field argent Azure per fess with a book proper and a Ford in base.

8: Jólgeirr Álarsson - New Name

Submitter's branch is Aquaterra.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

Jólgeirr - Geirr Bassi p12

Álarsson - patronymic, Álarr (Geirr Bassi p8)

Formed per GB p17

9: Loptr Jólgeirsson - New Name

Submitter's branch is Aquaterra.

Loptr - Geirr Bassi p13

Jólgeirsson - patronymic, Jólgeirr (Geirr Bassi p12)

Formed per GB p17

Would like spelling of name to be LoFtr but could not find documentation.

10: Miriella O'Shea - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• No holding name.
• No major changes.
• Client requests authenticity for 16th century Irish.
• Language (NoIrishlanguage and culture) most important.
• Culture (NoIrishlanguage and culture) most important.

Submitter's branch is Bitter End.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

The Herald HL Arwyn of Leicester consulted her resources; books, internet. She informed me that this name is documentable.

10: Miriella O'Shea - New Device

Gyronny, Azure and Or, on a Sea Dragon Erect Argent, Heart Gules

11: Muireagáin of the Highlands - Resub Name

• Language (13th Century Scotland) most important.
• Culture (13th Century Scotland) most important.

Submitter's branch is Madrone.

Item was returned by Lion's Blood in January 2012 for further work as the surname was not permitted as written.

Submitter has resubmitted the name differently without further documentation.

11: Muireagáin of the Highlands - Resub Appeal of Kingdom Return of Device

Sable, on a chevron or between two doves volant in chief and a stag's head erased in base argent, three crosses formy gules

12: Olivia Whytrose - New Blanket Permission to Conflict

Per saltire gules and sable, a rose within an orle argent.

Submitter's branch is Shire of Coeur du Val.

Submitter's device was registered in October 1999 via An Tir.

The following is quoted from the submitted letter:

I, [modern name redacted], known in the SCA as Olivia Whytrose waive the full protection of my registered armory "Per saltire gules and sable, a rose within an orle argent.". I grant permission to any future submitter to register armory that is (not identical to|at least one countable step different from) my registered armory. I understand that this permission can be withdrawn by written notice to the Laurel Sovereign of Arms, but that conflicting items registered while it is in force will remain registered.

13: Saorla O'Shea - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• No holding name.
• No major changes.
• Client requests authenticity for 16th century NIrish.
• Language (NoIrishlanguage and culture) most important.
• Culture (NoIrishlanguage and culture) most important.

Submitter's branch is Bitter End.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

The Herald HL Arwyn of Leicester consulted her resources; books, internet. She informed me that this name is documentable. Saorla is found on SCA website resource.

13: Saorla O'Shea - New Device

Gyronny, Or and Azure, on a Wing Deer Segreant Argent, cross moline Verte

14: Summits, Principality of the - New Order Name

Order of the Silver Arrow

• No major changes.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

The Principality's name was registered in November 1992 and the designator was updated in March of 1999.

This order name follows the pattern of "orders named for heraldic charges" as shown in "Medieval Secular Order Names" by Juliana de Luna (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/order/new/).

The spelling <arrow> is found in the OED, s.n. arrow n., dated to 1535: Thys arrow comyth never owt of thyn ownne bow.

The Principality is okay with adding the branch name as a major change if necessary to clear conflict. The branch name <Summits> was registered in that spelling in November 1992 as "Summits, Crown Principality of the".

15: Summits, Principality of the - Resub Order Name

Order of the Astrolabe of Saint Brendan

• No major changes.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

The Principality's name was registered in November 1992 and the designator was updated in March 1999.

This order name follows the pattern of "venerated objects of saints" as shown in "Medieval Secular Order Names" by Juliana de Luna (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/order/new/).

The OED, s.n. <astrolabe>, dates this spelling as early as 1393: GOWER Conf. III. 64 With him his astrolabe he name. Which was of fine gold precious With points and cercles merveilous.

Saint Brendan - The Catholic Encyclopedia's listing for St. Brendan (http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02758c.htm), indicates that his feast day is 16 May, and that he was known as "Brendan the Voyager". It also lists several period sources that map the end destination of Brendan's voyage, even though there was no actual proof that it occurred.

The Catholic Encyclopedia appears on the new version of Admin Handbook, Appendix H, and requires no photocopies.

This submission first reach Kingdom in 2008 as "Order of Aurora" and was returned in September 2008 for conflict with "Aurora Pursuivant". The Principality resubmitted the order as it appears here in October 2009 and it was pended by Lions Blood in December 2009 awaiting word from Lochac as "Saint Brendan" is a branch name and Lochac had registered "Astrolabe Herald". The Principality has been waiting to resubmit under the new rules as branch names are now permitted to clear conflict and the submission is no longer in conflict with "Astrolabe Herald" (as we never heard back from Lochac).

16: Summits, Principality of the - New Order Name

Order of the Jewel of the Summits

• No major changes.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

The Principality's name was registered in November 1992 and the designator was updated in March 1999.

This order name follows the pattern of "orders named for heraldic charges" as shown in "Medieval Secular Order Names" by Juliana de Luna (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/order/new/). The OED, s.n. jewel n., defines the word as "an article of value used for adornment"; this definition dates to 1290. Articles of adornment were seen in heraldry in the forms of jeweled rings, gemstones, brooches and torcs. Step-cut gemstones have been registered in SCA heraldry as late as 2007, and jeweled finger rings in 2006. A jewel is a reasonable interpretation of a period heraldic charge.

The spelling <jewel> is an interpolation of forms found in OED, s.n. jewel, n; period forms there include <ieuel>, <jeueals>, <juall>, <jewelis>, and <gewels>. Given that the first sound could be /i/, /j/ or /g/, the second sound /eu/, /eue/, /u/, or /ew/ and the last /el/, /al/, or /all/, the combination <jewel> seems like a reasonable period spelling.

The branch name <Summits> was registered in that spelling in November 1992 as "Summits, Crown Principality of the".

17: Summits, Principality of the - Resub Order Name

Order of the Gryphons Talon of the Summits

• No major changes.

The Principality's name was registered in November 1992 and the designator was updated in March 1999.

This order name follows the pattern of "orders named for a heraldic charge" as shown in "Medieval Secular Order Names" by Juliana de Luna (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/order/new/).

"The gryphon is a heraldic charge dating to 1244. <Gryphon> is a constructed spelling, based on the following argument (courtesy of Dame Ursula Georges): The OED s.v. <griffin>, I (http://www.oed/com, subscription required [URL should be http://www.oed.com/ -- Li Ban) says that <gryphon> is found from the 1500s onward in the Spellings section. Dated spellings of the word from before 1650 in this entry are: `griffon', c. 1386; `grifphon, girffon, grefoun', c. 1400; `griffoune'c c. 1425; `gryffons', 1481; `griphin'. 1567; `griffon', 1601; `gryphin', 1620; `gryffoune', ?a 1400; `greffons' 1439; `gryffoun', 1460; `griffens', 1552; `griffin', 1640. This data shows that <y> and could be used interchangeably for the first vowel, that <fph>, <ff>, <f>, and <ph> were all possible spellings of the /f/ sound, and that the final vowel could be spelled ,o., <ou>, , or <e>. Thus, <gryphon> is also plausible as a constructed spelling.

"The MED s.v. taloun (n.) shows the plural form <talons> with the following dates under 2a and 2b: 1450, 1475, and 1486. We believe the the singular form <talon> would be remarkable for this time period. (http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/m/mec/med-idx?type=id&id=MED44463).

"The front two legs of a gryphon are those of an eagle, and clearly possesses talons. Therefore, we submit that a gryphon's talon is a reasonable heraldic charge, and thus falls within the pattern as defined by Juliana's article. <Talon> has been used in order and award names as recently as October of 2005 (Award of the Sable Talon of Ansteorra)."

This submission first reached Kingdom in septenber 2009 as it appears here and it was returned by Lions Blood in November 2009 for conflict with "Order of the Sable Talon of Artemesia". The Principality has been waiting to resubmit under the new rules as branch names are now permitted to clear conflict and the Submission is no longer in conflict.

18: Tacye Maple - New Name Change

Tacye de Maple

Old Item: Tacye Maple, to be released.

• Submitter desires a female name.
• No changes.

Submitter's branch is Shire of Midhaven.

Submitter's name was registered in August 2002 via An Tir.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

Tacye -- Withycombe, E.G., Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names, 3rd ed.

p. 274, sub "Tace, Tacye": "This was a fairly common woman's name in the late 16th C."

de Maple -- Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames, revised 3rd ed.

p. 298, sub "Maples": "John del Mapples 1348 Shef. 'Dweller by the maple(s)'"

Other entries showing the pattern "de" + <tree name> include:

p. 15, sub "Ash, Ashe, Asch, Asche, Dash, Daish, Daysh...": "Richard de Esce 1221 AssWo; Ralph de Asche 1296 SRSx; ... Richard Dasche, de Ayssh 1320 LLB E, 1327 LoPleas; ... 'dweller by the ash-tree' ... Dash returns the French de."

p. 45, sub "Birch, Burch, Byrch": "Walter dela Birche c1182 MELS (Wo); Richard de Birches 1246 AssLa; ... Richard del Birche 1275 SRWo; ... William de la Burch 1275 MELS (So); ... 'Dweller by the birch(es)'"

p. 222, sub "Hawthorn, Hawthorne": "William de Hagethorn 1155 FeuDu ..."

19: Tamar Rustaveli - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• No major changes.
• Client requests authenticity for Georgia early1300s.
• Language (Not Specified) most important.
• Culture (Not Specified) most important.

Submitter's branch is Shire of Mountain's Edge.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

Tamar was the first name of Queen Tamar who ruled from 1160 to 1213 so this name would still have been popular in the early 1300s. Reference for Tamar http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamar_of_Georgia

Rustaveli is from Shota Rustaveli who was a famous Georgian Poet who lived from 1172-1216 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shorta_Rustaveli. The meaning is taken to mean fromRustavi which was old city in Meskheti, South Georgia. There are many Rustaveli's in Georgia to this day.

19: Tamar Rustaveli - New Device

8 part gyronny in Argent and Gules Winged Wolf Rampant Sinister Sable

Thus concludes the June letter.

In Service,

Viktor Kladivo

Black Talbot Herald

An Tir OSCAR counts: 10 New Names, 1 New Name Change, 2 New Order Names, 6 New Devices, 1 New Blanket Permission to Conflict. This gives 20 new items. Resub counts: 1 Resub Name, 1 Resub Name Change, 3 Resub Order Names, 1 Resub Device. This is a total of 6 resubmissions on this letter, for a total of 26 actions.

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