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An Tir IL dated 2012-02-08 (Jump to Submissions)

Unto Anthony Black Lion, Oddr Lions Blood, and the esteemed heralds from An Tir and elsewhere to whom this missive comes, Elizabeth Sable Chime sends greetings! Many thanks to Lions Blood and Sinister Gauntlet for their help in entering the 52 items that appear on this letter; they came via e-mail, 12th Night, and Ursulmas. Please bear with me as we transition this letter to new officers!

Commentary on this letter is due March 10.

FROM LIONS BLOOD

Unto the most prolific heralds of An Tir, Greetings!

We've had a busy month!

Including the highly successful consultation tables at 12th Night and Ursulmas, we've had a rather busy time in the mailbox. This month, there are in excess of fifty (50!) incoming submissions, of a variety of types, split roughly evenly between names and armory. Due to the volume, I'm electing to hold my decisions meeting over two weekends. Coupled with possible travel plans, this means a somewhat shorter commentary period than normal. I'll indicate the affected submissions so that commenters can focus their efforts appropriately.

Many thanks to Elizabeth Sable Chime for volunteering to manage the Corvallis mailbox, as well as kindly ferrying submissions from 12th Night and Ursulmas.

I also wish to thank commenters for their extraordinary efforts with last month's letter. Thanks to your work, we were able to help a number of submissions that needed it. While not all of them were forwarded to Laurel (there are only so many redraws that can be handled at a time, and some were pre-emptively resubmitted), several were.

It is to this end that I wish to thank, in particular, Gunnvor silfraharr, Gawain Green Anchor and his commenters, Alicia Red Flame, and Elizabeth Sable Chime for the fact that we had much of anything to present at all. I would also like to thank Tóki Sinister Gauntlet for helping redraw and color armory.

The next Lions Blood meetings will be:

CHANGED AS OF 15 FEB

- Sunday, 19 Feb, noon at my house in Mill Creek, WA, discussing the January letter. Please contact me if you plan to attend.

- Saturday, 10 Mar, 3pm at my house in Mill Creek, WA, discussing this letter (as far as we get). Please contact me if you plan to attend.

- Sunday, 11 Mar, noon at my house in Mill Creek, WA, discussing this letter (whatever remains). Please contact me if you plan to attend.

- Saturday, 14 Apr, time TBD at the Irish Spring Feast in Rivers Bend, discussing the March letter.

I am planning to accept submissions at the following events:

- Saturday, 25 Feb, at the Youth Althing in Midhaven

- The weekend of 17-18 Mar, at the Shittemwoode Almost Spring Ithra

- Saturday, 14 Apr, time TBD at the Irish Spring Feast in Rivers Bend

If you plan to offer a consultation table at an event, let me know. There's a possibility that I might be able to attend, and accept submissions directly.

Tóki Sinister Gauntlet and I will be teaching (for our first times) the core Heraldry class at the Almost Spring Ithra as well as a 2h elective in commentary and consultation. I am discussing with the local Ithra chancellor about offering the Lions Blood meeting for an additional 2h credit to give students of the C&C class a practicum experience.

Please welcome Rahere fitz Ranulf and Viktor Kladivo as our new Boar and Black Talbot Pursuivants; Sable Chime is presently seeing to their education. Rhi has stepped down and has now assumed the title of Silver Lily.

Please congratulate Tóki Sinister Gauntlet on his much-deserved attainment of the Goutte de Sang. Her Majesty, on awarding it, is said to have referenced "many recommendations". Such minions make an officer proud.

I remain, happily, a student among teachers --

Oddr Lions Blood, JdL

LAUREL ACTIONS

The following is excerpted from the November 2011 Cover Letter:

From Laurel: KWHSS 2013 Bids Requested

For those considering bidding on the 2013 Known World Heraldic and Scribal Symposium, the deadline to have your bid entered into OSCAR is March 31, 2012. This will give the College of Arms time for consideration so that we can announce the bid's award at the 2012 KWHSS in the Barony of the Bridge, East Kingdom.

Please remember that bids posted to OSCAR are publicly readable. Because of this, all personal information, such as legal names, addresses, phone numbers, and email, should not be included in these bids without signed, written permission. Such information as is necessary should be posted as a comment after the bid is finalized, so that only the College of Arms can read it. Please send a copy of the full unredacted bid to Laurel at laurel@heraldry.sca.org.

As a reminder, there is a KWHSS domain and web hosting space available on the SCA's servers. Please do not register your own.

Please see http://heraldry.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/kwhs/ or contact Laurel if you have any questions.

From Laurel: New Codex

As happens from time to time, one of our staff members has left our employ for snowier pastures. I'm sure you'll all be sad to hear that Maol Mhichil mac Ghiolla Pheadair, our former Codex Herald, responsible for the care and feeding of the Laurel website, has stepped up once again as Polaris Principal Herald of Northshield. Combined with a new real-world job, he has not had the time to continue in the position of Codex and take on the role of Polaris. He has done a good job for us, and we look forward to good things out of Northshield.

Fortunately, we were quickly able to find a successor and have appointed Reis ap Tuder as our new Codex. Reis is notable as the original author of the ACE online commentary system, currently used by Ansteorra and Æthelmearc to do kingdom internal commentary. We hope that you will make him feel welcome. We also hope that the welcome will not be dumping all of the outstanding issues for the Laurel website on his head at once, then expecting it to all be done by next week

From Laurel: Education Deputy

As many of you know, one of my goals in office was to put into place an education deputy whose role would be to assist the Kingdoms in growing their Colleges by providing a resource to Kingdom Heralds to help educate all about heraldry. I have found a person to fill that role. Marie de Blois has stepped into this job. She will be retaining the Palimpsest title as well, since it is expected that there will be quite a lot less work with the rules, now that the proposal has gone to the Board.

I would also like to thank Richenda du Jardin for her work in this office. She is going to stay on board as one of Marie's deputies and continue to help out in the office.

From the Incoming Education Deputy: Greetings and Salutations!

I think most of you know me by now ... I'm Marie de Blois, Palimpsest and the Marie that posts on your kingdom's heraldry email list (yes, your kingdom has a heraldry email list and yes, I'm on it). So I'll skip to the fun part. You are all ready to have FUN, right? Because heraldry is FUN, right? If not, well, I think it should be!

My goals as education deputy are to help make it easier (and more fun) for everyone to learn more about heraldry, at all levels. In order to do that, I'll be contacting education heralds and principal heralds and all kinds of heralds around the SCA to find out what you need to make education happen in your kingdoms and who we can get to help. I have a list of ideas a mile long, starting with training documentation for the New Rules, so stay tuned. I encourage all the education heralds (and any other heralds interested in making heraldic education happen) reading this to get on the Herald-Education email list at: http://lists.sca.org/listinfo/herald-education/

I'd also like to thank Richenda du Jardin, my predecessor, both for her work in this office and for staying on as my deputy. She'll be continuing to work on making http://heraldry.sca.org/ full of amazing heraldic resources of all kinds.

From Pelican: Norse Capitalization

Current precedent requires that descriptive bynames in Norse be rendered in lowercase, while given names and patronyms be capitalized. When that standard was last considered in October 2002, Laurel ruled "to the best of our knowledge Gordon [who capitalized such bynames in his An Introduction to Old Norse] does not follow either period transliteration standards or modern transliteration standards." However, we register names in other languages, like Arabic, that follow transcription systems that are casual and not used by scholars.

In addition, the rise of Google Books has made many more sources available to us than were previously available. Therefore, we would ask commenters to revisit this issue answering two questions: does evidence continue to support the previous finding, that descriptive bynames in Old Norse are consistently lowercased by scholars? And even if the data says that scholarly standards render descriptive bynames in lowercase, should we register Old Norse names that follow relatively casual non-scholarly transcription standards? If so, should we allow forms that combine features of formal systems like accents and informal ones like capitalization for descriptive bynames?

From Pelican: Request for Comments on Patterns in Order Names and Heraldic Titles

In the Cover Letter of August 2005 (following a call for comments on the Cover Letter of February 2005), Pelican made a substantial ruling regarding the patterns for registration for order names and heraldic titles. Since that time, our knowledge of order names and heraldic titles has advanced considerably, in large part due articles like my "Heraldic Titles from the Middle Ages and Renaissance" (found at http://medievalscotland.org/jes/HeraldicTitlesSCA/index.shtml) and my "Medieval Secular Order Names" (found at http://medievalscotland.org/jes/OrderNames/ or at http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/order/new/). I also have unpublished data that I will share with those who would like additional information.

This month I want to ask questions about the use of heraldic terms in order names and heraldic titles. Current precedent says that order names and heraldic titles can be created from the name of a charge as well as from the name of a charge plus the everyday color term used in some language for the name of a heraldic tincture: Cigne Noir 'black swan,' Roden Ermeln 'red sleeve(s)'. I note quickly that there are no period examples of an English color word; the English heraldic titles that use colors are formed in Anglo-Norman French. There are also no examples of purple in any language.

In these titles and order names, we generally see only the everyday terms for charges for those that have an ordinary name (we see things like fuzil and restre 'rustre'). But we never see terms like mullet instead of the plain word for star, for example. We do not currently require submitters to use the everyday term for heraldic charge: we register either everyday terms or heraldic terms. There is a discrepancy between the way we treat the names of charges and color terms. Should we leave this standard as it is? Should we restrict further the use of the names of heraldic charges, requiring submissions to use only the everyday terms for the charges? Should we loosen further the use of the names of heraldic tinctures, allowing the use of the formal heraldic tincture name as well as the vernacular terms? I'd note that many older groups have this usage grandfathered to them and continue to register items using the heraldic terms.

There are a handful of other adjectives used in order names and heraldic titles derived from charges: Estoile Volant 'flying star' (a star with wings), Croyslett (crosses crosslet), Corona Doble 'double crown', Rosenkrentzen 'rose wreaths' and gekrönten Steinbocken 'crowned ibex.' All seem to be more or less straightforward descriptions of charges. The second question is then: what other adjectives should we allow to modify charges? I'd encourage commenters to look at the data in the articles cited above, as well as the "heraldic" inn signs found at http://www.contrib.andrew.cmu.edu/~grm/signs-1485-1636.html and http://medievalscotland.org/kmo/inn/. The inn signs are interesting as they add some posture/orientation terms: Cross keyes and Spread eagle (and a 1636 Two neck'd Swan). However, whether these late period and grey period inn-sign names are appropriate for heraldic titles and order names is yet another question.

From Pelican: Some Name Resources (A Series)

This month, we continue with French names by turning our attention to the langue d'oc, modern Occitan/Provencal. Unfortunately, there are really no books that are readily available that deal with Occitan. Our main sources, therefore, are online.

Occitan is closely related to another language (or group of languages) spoken in eastern Spain, called Catalan. The best source for Occitan and Catalan names is http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/occitan.shtml.

A great source for early names is Ramons lo Montalbes' "French/Occitan Names from the XII and XIII Century" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/ramon/occitan/). This article, and the author's name, demonstrate an important feature of Occitan: it generally used a nominative marker, which for men is -s. So, we see forms like Azemars, Aimerics, and of course Ramons. Note that the French names in this article are modern, but the Occitan names are original. The other early sources we have are Latinized, which means that the names are written in Latin and modified from the likely spoken form.

For the 14th century, there are articles from several locations. One of the largest is Aryanhwy merch Catmael's "Occitan names from Saint Flour, France, 1380-1385" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/french/saintflour.html). For the late 16th century, I find myself using Talan Gwynek's "Late Period Feminine Names from the South of France" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/talan/latefrenchfem/). Unfortunately, many of the articles that deal with southern French names give the northern French versions of Occitan names.

From Wreath: Voided (and Interlaced) Charges

This month we ruled that charges that are voided as part of their definition, such as mascles and annulets, may be used in all types of charge groups. This clarifies section VIII.3 of the Rules for Submissions, which requires that "Voiding and fimbriation may only be used with simple geometric charges placed in the center of the design."

This rule was interpreted in February 2011 to mean that mullets of eight points voided and interlaced were too complex to be used as a charge not in the center of the design. More recent interpretations have included mullets of five and six points voided and interlaced in this ruling, preventing their use as non-primary charges. However, as mullets of five and six points voided and interlaced can be found in period armory and are simpler and more recognizable than a mullet of eight points voided and interlaced, we have declared their voiding and interlacing to be part of their definition of type, and so they may also be used as non-primary charges.

We will continue to not use the terms pentagram or pentacle, due to their possible confusion over whether or not an annulet is involved.

From Wreath: Marshalling and Chiefs

This month we considered whether or not a charged chief removes the appearance of marshalling with a quartered field. Past precedent states:

[Per pale, a harp and a cross of four lozenges, a chief embattled] The chief was a mark of primary cadency in period (Gayre's Heraldic Cadency, p.153), and it became part of the Stodart system of cadency used today in Scotland. Thus, the addition of a chief to quartered armory would not remove the appearance of marshalling. However, the chief's use as a brisure was never as widespread as the bordure's; where the bordure would be used to cadence all forms of marshalling, the chief would only be used to cadence quartering. In the case of impalement --- which implies a marital coat, not an inherited one --- the addition of the chief is sufficient to remove the appearance of marshalling. [Æthelstan von Ransbergen, A-Ansteorra, Sep 1992]

Further research seems to indicate that the chief was not used as a mark of cadency in Anglo-Norman armory on a marshalled coat, either impaled or quartered, unlike the bordure and the label. The Stodart system of cadency used in Scotland concentrates primarily on the use of bordures. We are therefore overturning past precedent, and allowing chiefs both charged and uncharged to remove the appearance of marshalling on both impaled and quartered fields. Chiefs so used must not add to the appearance of marshalling by having a per pale division with tinctures or dissimilar charges so arranged as to create confusion.

From Wreath: Mullets and Estoiles, Take Two

Commenters were asked to discuss whether or not we should consider mullets and estoiles equivalent for purposes of conflict, or if we should continue to treat them as significantly different.

The Cover Letter to the June 1991 LoAR cited some evidence of their interchangeability in period armory, but chose to retain the distinction in Society armory. Further research has provided some evidence of distinction late in period, but the issue is more complicated than that.

The term estoile used in Society armory is taken from the English charge of a six pointed star with wavy rays. On the continent, estoile or etoile is a likewise a star, but depicted as what we would consider a plain straight-rayed mullet, with points ranging from six to eight, and occasionally more. The English mullet is generally always five pointed, generally with rather fat rays, and in its occasional piercing shows its resemblance to (and, no doubt, descent from) the spur rowel, another charge we consider significantly different.

The only heraldic jurisdiction which had both mullets and estoiles is England. Only later in period is there evidence that the charges were considered non-interchangeable. In every other heraldic jurisdiction, stars are stars. However, in English armory, a typical five-pointed mullet and a very star-like six-pointed estoile have more visual distinction than a typical five-pointed mullet and a typical pierced spur-rowel.

Therefore, I feel I can do no better than to quote from the June 1991 Cover Letter, in which Master Da'ud, then Laurel, writes:

While Lord Laurel (a secret sympathizer of the dreaded Authenticity Police) can see much educational and re-creative benefit to doing SCA heraldry in such a way as to most closely follow period heraldry, he honestly believes that there are very few heralds in the Known World who would be willing to look a person submitting a device in the face and tell them that a five pointed star and a six-rayed estoile are the same thing. (I am reminded of the line from "Young Frankenstein": "This could be dangerous. You go first.")

I believe that there are times when the visual reality (the "20th Century visual reality", if you will, but we are dealing with people untrained in any other century for the most part) is so strong as to overcome period heraldic practice, whether it be in granting difference or in permitting none. I also believe this to be one of those instances.

I feel the visual reality of the 21st Century to be little enough changed in this precise case, and so will decline to change precedent at this time. This issue should be revisited in the future, as we continue to move submitters towards more period style. For now, however, there still remains a CD between mullets and estoiles.

Commenters were also asked to consider whether we should continue granting difference for the number of points on a mullet. As this topic was not much explored, I am making the following proposal and asking commenters for feedback:

  • estoiles are defined as having only six points and must have wavy rays; estoiles of more or fewer points are not registerable
  • the number of points on a mullet is interchangeable, but may be specified, as long as it is identifiable as a mullet
  • there is no CD between mullets of any number of points
  • there is no CD between estoiles of any number of points
  • there is a CD between a mullet of any number of points and an estoile of any number of points
  • there is a CD between a mullet of any number of points and a sun, as they were charges distinguished in period
  • there is a CD between an estoile of any number of points and a sun, as they were charges distinguished in period

Mullets with eight or more points that are drawn with sufficiently short points may be reblazoned as suns. Properly drawn compass stars are mullets, and will be granted a CD from suns. Suns should have at least eight short rays, preferably more, and be drawn with a large central area.

This proposal may result in some reblazoning of mullets or estoiles to suns.

Commenters are asked to couch any suggested alternatives in a similarly explicit fashion.

From Wreath: Crescents and Things

This month we have two submissions that could both be blazoned (Fieldless) Within the horns of a crescent, a <charge>. Past practice has been that if the charge and the crescent are conjoined, the crescent is the primary charge and the other charge is a maintained charge. Rarely, the other charge has been deemed a sufficient size to be considered sustained, and thus co-primary with the crescent. If the two are not conjoined, the charge is usually considered the primary charge, with the crescent as a secondary charge, but occasionally the reverse is the case. Such variation in blazon leads to confusion.

Placing items between the horns of a crescent is a period heraldic motif. Richard I of England used it as a seal, currently listed in Society armory as the badge (Tinctureless) An estoile between the horns of a crescent, a style of badge that was likely brought back from the East during the Crusades. The family of Percy had as a badge within the horns of a crescent a pair of shacklebolts. There is no doubt other examples could be found.

As this seems to be not only a period heraldic motif, but a fairly popular one as well, it would reduce confusion and make conflict checking far easier if we were able to standardize on blazon and charge type grouping. Given that there does not seem to be any evidence that such badges in period were interchanged with plain crescents, we will not consider the thing between the horns to be a maintained charge, so long as it is of an ample size. We have a similar item-surrounding-another motif with charges within and conjoined to annulets, although crescents can take up more of the central visual space than an annulet. In those cases, generally (but not always!) the thing within the annulet is the primary charge, with the annulet the secondary charge. Using that as an example, I am asking for commentary on the following two options:

  • either declare the charge between the horns to be the primary charge, with the crescent as the secondary charge, regardless of whether it is conjoined or not
  • OR considering that the crescent, unlike the annulet, is typically the larger charge, declare the crescent to be the primary charge and the thing between the horns as secondary charge, regardless of whether it is conjoined or not

In either case, this would apply to all orientations of a crescent. The blazon between the horns has no difference from within.

Laurel registered the following items in November 2011:

Aine inghean Reamoinn mhic Neill. Name and device. Quarterly purpure and sable, in bend a wolf statant and an increscent, on a chief argent three roses purpure barbed and seeded proper.

The submitter indicated that if her name must be changed, she wanted to create a name that means "Aine daughter of Raymond of Clan Naill." That would have ui Neill instead of mhic Neill. The registered form means that her grandfather was named Niall. However, it is registerable as submitted, so we are not changing it.

Commenters discussed whether or not a charged chief removes the appearance of marshalling with a quartered field. Research seems to indicate that the chief was not used as a mark of cadency in Anglo-Norman armory on a marshalled coat, either impaled or quartered. This chief therefore removes the appearance of marshalling, and so the device may be registered. See the cover letter for more information regarding chiefs and marshalling.

Aine inghean Reamoinn mhic Neill. Badge. (Fieldless) A demi-wolf passant erased argent.

Aladar Stensen. Name and device. Gyronny arrondy of six argent and azure, a triskelion of dragon's heads sable.

This name mixes a Hungarian given name and a German byname; that mix is a step from period practice.

Aladar Stensen. Badge. (Fieldless) A dragon's head erased sable gorged of a pearled coronet argent.

The submitter is a court baron and thus entitled to display a coronet.

An Tir, Kingdom of. Heraldic title White Dragon Pursuivant.

Anicia de Dore. Name and device. Per bend sinister wavy azure and erminois, a bend sinister wavy counterchanged and in chief a hawk's lure Or.

Beak Bell of Dumfries. Name.

Nice 16th century Scots name!

Chiara Stella. Device. Per pale Or and azure, in bend sinister two mullets of eight interlocking mascles counterchanged.

This arrangement of mascles is recognizable in this depiction. However, the arrangement is not attested in period armory, and so we are declaring its use a step from period practice.

David of Malaspina. Name and device. Gules, a scaling ladder between in fess two axes Or.

The byname is a lingua Anglica form of the Italian di Malaspina.

Commenters questioned whether a Jewish name like David would be found with a vernacular locative byname. Yehoshua ben haim haYerushalmi's article, "A sample of Jewish names in Milan 1540-1570," includes names like David de Suavis and Davide Castellani, so this is not a problem. In fact this name closely matches period practice.

Emma Compton. Name.

Nice 14th century English name!

Gervais Blakglove. Name.

Hafr-Tóki. Badge. (Fieldless) A goat rampant pean.

Nice badge!

Ívarr læknir. Name.

Kallikleas Lysias. Name.

This name mixes a Greek given name with a Latin cognomen. Such a combination is a step from period practice. We do not know if the given name was in use at a time that would be temporally compatible with a Latin cognomen. However, the source from which the given name is taken includes names both from the classical Greek period (which is much older) and from a later time compatible with a Latin cognomen. Therefore, we are giving him the benefit of the doubt and ruling that there is not a second step from period practice for the temporal mix. A fully Greek form would be Kallikleas Lusiou.

Lourenço de Compostella. Device. Quarterly per fess embattled gules and Or crusilly Santiago gules, a wolf rampant to sinister and a bear passant Or.

Please advise the submitter to draw the embattlements on the line of division deeper, to aid in their identification and to help avoid the appearance of marshalling.

Meave Cunningham. Badge. Vert, in pale a turtle rampant contourny argent conjoined to a pumpkin Or.

The use of a pumpkin, a New World flora, is a step from period practice.

Please advise the submitter to draw the turtle's head looking to sinister, not upwards.

Nigel Compton. Name.

Oddr mj{o,}ksiglandi. Badge. (Fieldless) A comet fesswise Or.

The submitter has permission to conflict with the badge of Nicolaa de Bracton of Leicester, (Fieldless) A comet fesswise gules bearded Or.

Osanna Rosslyn. Name and device. Argent fretty gules nailed Or, a dragon passant contourny vert.

The submitter requested authenticity for the 12th to 14th century. This name is authentic for early 14th century England as submitted.

Please advise the submitter to draw the frets narrower with more space between them; medieval-style fretty had the width of the laths equal to about a quarter of the width of the space in between.

Philip Peregrine. Name and device. Per pale Or and vert all goutty counterchanged, a frog counterchanged vert and Or.

Nice name for anytime from the 13th century on in England!

Sage MacLeod of Canna. Name and device. Argent, a brown owl proper perched upon and maintaining a threaded needle sable and in chief three hursts of pine trees vert.

Sebdann ingen Shinaig. Name and device. Argent, in pale a horse passant vert and a chamfron azure.

Submitted as Sebhdann ingen Sinaig, the name has two issues. First, the given name uses the late period Early Modern Gaelic spelling of the name, though the name had long since fallen out of use. The Old Gaelic form Sebdann is suitable for the period in which the name was used. Second, the patronym must be lenited to follow the rules of Irish grammar; that makes it ingen Shinaig. We have made these changes in order to register the name.

The submitter requested authenticity for 8th century Ireland; this changed form of the name meets that request.

Sebdann ingen Shinaig. Badge. (Fieldless) A foi bendwise within and conjoined to an annulet argent.

Please advise the submitter to draw the annulet thicker to make it more noticable.

Sinéidin inghean an Bhiadhtaigh. Name change from Sinéidin Bean Thorain and device change. Per pale vert and sable, a natural tiger rampant argent marked sable winged argent and in chief a county coronet Or.

Submitted as Sinéidin inghean Biadhtach, the byname is not derived from a given name, but from a byname meaning "public victualler." As such, it can be registered in a simple patronymic byname. Barring evidence that this name was used in clan bynames, or that there is a broad pattern of creating clan bynames from similar occupational bynames, it cannot be registered as submitted. In either case, the occupational byname must be placed in the genitive (possessive) form and lenited, as the meaning is "daughter of the public victualler." The genitive of biadhtach is biadhtaigh; lenited it is bhiadhtaigh. We have changed it to the patronymic form inghean an Bhiadhtaigh in order to register it.

Her previous name, Sinéidin Bean Thorain, is retained as an alternate name.

Her previous device, Vert, a natural tiger rampant contourny argent marked sable winged argent, within a bordure gyronny Or and sable, is retained as a badge.

The submitter is a countess and thus entitled to display a coronet.

The use of a natural tiger is a step from period practice.

Sophia Francesca Bruno. Name and device. Gules, a bear sejant erect maintaining a mullet and on a chief Or a cubit arm erased, index finger extended gules.

Submitted as Sophia Francesca Bruno, the name was changed by kingdom to Sofia Francesca Bruno to match the documentation they could find. Aryanhwy merch Catmael pointed out that the spelling Sophia can be found in late period Rome. We have therefore restored the name to its submitted form. In addition, the family name Bruno can be constructed in 15th century Florence (the given name Bruno is found there, as are unmarked patronymic family names). Thus the name is completely late period Italian as submitted.

Some commenters were unfamiliar of this depiction of a cubit arm, but hands in Italian heraldry commonly have their index finger extended.

Steinolfr Ketilsson. Name and device. Per saltire argent and azure, a wolf passant sable and a drakkar reversed proper sail set azure.

Submitted as Steinolf Ketilsson, the submitter requested authenticity for 9th century Norway. In that time and place, people are speaking Old West Norse, the language that we identify as "Old Norse" in sources like Geirr Bassi. In this language, men's names have a nominative case marker that changes as the name is used in different places in a sentence. That marker drops away over time. The Old West Norse form of the name is Steinolfr or (written with accents, that were not used consistently, Steinólfr. We have changed the name to the first form in order to meet the submitter's desire for authenticity.

Thomasina Fairamay. Name.

Nice 14th century English name!

Tir Rígh, Principality of. Heraldic title Black Adderbolt Herald.

Submitted as Black Adderbolt Herald, the name was changed in kingdom to Black Adder Bolte Herald to match the dated forms they could find. Eastern Crown showed that the originally submitted form was dated to 1564 in the OED, so we have restored the name to the submitted form.

Laurel returned the following items for further work in November 2011:

Killian Flynn. Name.

Under the current rules, this conflicts with the registered Killian Quinn. The bynames are too similar in sound. Numerous precedents indicate that just changing a consonant cluster, even at the beginning of the name, is not sufficient to be a significant difference in sound. If the proposed new rules are implemented as proposed, these names will no longer conflict.

Uilliam mac Fearchair mhic Gille Aindrias. Badge for Clan MacAndrew. (Fieldless) A demi-frog vert.

This device is returned for a redraw, for violating section VII.7.a of the Rules for Submissions which requires that "Elements must be recognizable solely from their appearance." Commenters were unable to identify this as a demi-frog as opposed to a demi-lizard, since the most identifiable parts of a frog, its hind legs, are missing.

William of the Battered Helm. Device. Sable, on a chevron argent between two ram's heads respectant and a ram's horn Or, three hoof prints sable.

This device conflicts with the device of Westan Locke, Sable, on a chevron argent between three keys palewise wards to base Or, three crows close contourny sable, and with the device of Ulrich Schwarzwolf, Sable, on a chevron argent a double-bitted axe between two wolves combatant sable. In both cases, there is one CD for the change/addition of secondary charges, but as William's device has more than two types of charge on the field, it does not qualify for section X.4.j.ii of the Rules for Submission, and so there is not a CD for the change in type only to the tertiary charges.

It should be noted that under the proposed new rules, this device would not be in conflict.

There is a step from period practice for the use of hoof prints.

Please advise the submitter that upon resubmission, the ram's horn would be more identifiable if it were not completely closed.

The following is excerpted from the December 2011 Cover Letter:

From Laurel: Status Of The New Rules

At the January, 2012 Board Meeting, held on January 28, the Board returned the new Rules for Submission to this office for further review. Laurel and Palimpsest are working with the Board to determine what is necessary to get these rules approved. More details will follow as we receive such.

From Pelican: Some Name Resources (A Series)

Like most other parts of Europe, the Iberian peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal) was linguistically diverse in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Most languages spoken on the peninsula are descended from Latin; the Iberian peninsula was fully integrated into the Roman Empire. In the western area, the language developed into modern Portuguese and Galician. In the central area, the language developed into modern Castilian (also called Spanish). In the east, it developed into modern Catalan. This is an oversimplification, as considerable linguistic variation continues to this day, but these define the major languages and the major language groups. In addition to the Romance languages, two other languages were important. Basque (also known as Vasco or Euskadi) was spoken in some parts of northeastern Spain. Arabic was spoken in the south from the Arab invasion in 8th century until the end of period (despite the conquest of the last Muslim kingdom in 1492 and the early 16th century expulsion of Muslims from Spain).

Articles for all these areas may be found at the Medieval Names Archives (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/iberian.shtml and http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/occitan.shtml). For Portuguese, the earliest vernacular (as opposed to Latin) records show up around 1200, and my article "Early Portuguese Names" (at http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/earlyportuguese/) documents those forms. Both Aryanhwy merch Catmael and I have done research on later Portuguese names, which can be found at the first link above. For Castilian/Spanish, research spans a broader period of time. For names before 1200, I still go first to a print source: Gonzalo Diez Melcon's Apellidos Castellano-Leoneses: Siglos IX-XIII, ambos inclusive (Surnames from Castile and Leon: 9th to 13th centuries inclusive). It's a stunning set of data, and well indexed. Talan Gwynek published an index to the given names from it in the Known World Heraldic Symposium Proceedings in 1993; he has declined to revise it for online posting, but it's definitely worth finding. Otherwise, I tend to go to the articles, especially my "Spanish Names from the Late 15th Century"(http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/isabella/) and Elsbeth Anne Roth's "16th Century Spanish Names" (http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~kvs/heraldry/spanish16/). Each indexes thousands of names; other excellent articles include smaller datasets. For the Catalan-speaking areas, I start with Aryanhwy merch Catmael's "Catalan Names from the 1510 census of Valencia" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/spanish/valencia1510.html). In addition to the published data, I have several unpublished datasets for this area that cover the 14th and 15th centuries, so feel free to inquire if your clients are interested in that period.

For the non-Romance languages, we also have sources. Basque is problematic, as there are relatively few Basque language sources before 1600. But the names of Basque speakers were written down in Catalan and Spanish. Many are identical to the names of Spanish speakers, as some Basque names were adopted into Spanish and many Spanish names adopted into Basque. However, with that caveat, Karen Larsdatter's "Basque Onomastics of the Eighth to Sixteenth Centuries" (http://www.larsdatter.com/basque/) is a great introduction to these names. She includes in this article both elements that were used by Basques and elements that were Basque by origin but used by Spaniards. You can generally tell which are which by looking at her sources: citations from Diez Melcon are generally from outside the Basque-speaking area.

For Arabic names, I start with my "Arabic Names from al-Andalus" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/alandalus/) (al-Andalus is the Arabic name for the Islamic parts of the Iberian peninsula). This article includes data from a group of studies of Arabic names in the area. There are other great articles on Arabic names, but they focus on the Middle East proper, rather than explicitly on the Iberian peninsula. These Arabic names can be registered with or without all the diacritical marks (long marks, emphatic dots, etc.). For Jewish names, you need to focus on location, as Jews tended to use vernacular names as well as Hebrew/biblical ones. Therefore, the names of Jews in Catalan-speaking areas were not the same as those in Castilian-speaking areas. We don't have any studies of Portuguese Jewish names; I'd love any recommendations. For Castilian context, I use a mundane article by Lidia Becker, "Names of Jews in Medieval Navarre" (found at http://pi.library.yorku.ca/dspace/bitstream/handle/10315/3618/icos23_140.pdf?sequence=1) and Julie Kahan's "Jewish Women's Names in 13th to 15th Century Navarre" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juetta/nav_intro.html). For Catalan contexts, I start with my "Jews in Catalonia: 1250 to 1400" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/catalan-jews/). Again, we have no sources for Jews in Arabic-speaking Spain. Therefore, I usually start with the information that we have from Jewish Cairo, including my "Jewish Women's Names in an Arab Context: Names from the Geniza of Cairo" and the sections about bynames that have been published in Known World Heraldic Symposium proceedings.

From Wreath: Knotty Serpents

While most serpents in period armory are erect or encircled, it is not uncommon to find serpents nowed, and discussion was raised this month on whether or not to count difference between serpents twisted into different kinds of knots. Precedent has long held, with the exception of knots-as-charges, that "knots are knots", with no difference granted for type of knot. This is true for both serpents as well as other parts of charges that may find themselves tangled up, such as lions' tails.

More recent precedent, based on not granting difference between a serpent involved in annulo and an annulet, states "A serpent nowed in a simple recognizable knot therefore has no significant difference for type from that knot itself." [Eve the Just, March 2004 LoAR, R-Ealdormere] However, we have no evidence that the two types of charges, serpents and knots, were considered identical in period. Knots themselves were typically depicted as braided cords with frayed ends; serpents are also long, slender, and flexible, but the similarities end there.

Therefore, we are explicitly overturning the March 2004 precedent: unless evidence is provided showing that they were considered interchangeable in period, serpents are significantly different (a CD) from cords, but may continue to have visual conflict with knots under section X.5 of the Rules for Submissions.

Laurel registered the following items in December 2011:

An Tir, Kingdom of. Transfer of order name Order of the Shattered Spear to Tir Rígh, Principality of.

An Tir, Kingdom of. Transfer of heraldic title Pomegranate Herald to Elisabeth de Rossignol.

Claudia Soerette Nicholerii. Name and device. Per bend bevilled argent and azure.

This name mixes Swiss elements (Latinized, and of unclear linguistic origin) with the French Soerette. This is at worst a step from period practice and can be registered.

Elisabeth de Rossignol. Acceptance of transfer of heraldic title Pomegranate Herald Extraordinary from Kingdom of An Tir.

Luciano Foscari. Name change from Lucian MacCrimmon (see RETURNS for badge).

His previous name, Lucian MacCrimmon, is retained as an alternate name.

Magnus Ysenberg. Name.

Submitted as Magnus Eisenberg, the submitter requested authenticity for 11th-14th century Germany. The spelling Ysenberg is dated to 1331 in Brechenmacher s.n. Eisenberg; we have made that change in order to meet his request for authenticity. We note that the submitted form is authentic for the end of our period.

Michel Evers. Name.

Sigehere Skerebaerd. Name and device. Argent masoned sable, an alphyn passant and on a chief embattled purpure three martlets rising wings displayed argent.

Sigher is documented as a 12th century Dutch name. The submitted Sigehere is a plausible alternate spelling of that name.

We note that the documentation for this name was summarized on the Letter of Intent in a way that confused commenters. Only at the meeting did we realize that the documentation for the name was from a Dutch source, rather than an Anglo-Saxon one.

Please advise the submitter to draw the masoning such that the "bricks" are larger and more easily identified.

Tir Rígh, Principality of. Acceptance of transfer of order name Order of the Shattered Spear from An Tir, Kingdom of.

Laurel returned the following items for further work in December 2011:

Luciano Foscari. Badge. (Fieldless) A monkey statant collared and chained vert.

There is no heraldic difference between a monkey and an ape. Therefore, this badge is in conflict with the badge of Avery Austringer (Fieldless) An ape statant vert, collared and chained Or, with only one CD for fieldlessness. The collaring and chaining is the equivalent of a maintained charge and does not count for difference, but is sufficient to allow registration with a letter of permission to conflict.

LIONS BLOOD ACTIONS

In general, these items are from the December 2011 Internal Letter.

The following items have been forwarded to Laurel and are tentatively scheduled to be decided on in April 2012:

Anne Midwinter. Name.

Dýrfinna þeysir. Name.

Submitted as Dýrfinna helluflagi, name was changed per email with client, to meet intended meaning.

Edmund Halliday. Device. Or, semy of trefoil knots inverted azure, a crane close contourny sable within an orle vert.

Feradach MacTralin MecDomongart. Name and device. Per chevron gules and sable, a snake coiled erect argent and in chief a sword and glaive in chevron Or.

Commentary raised a question of lenition, per Rohese:

My best guess as to the lenited genitive form of "Domomgart" [sic] is "Dhomangairt". The name should probably appear as "Feradach mac Trailin mec Dhomongairt".

Considering the expressed desire regarding major changes, we did not change this name to separate out the <mac> and <mec> elements or address lenition.

Hrafna-Úlfr of the Cimbri. Name. (See RETURNS for device.)

Submitted as Wulfhrafn of Cimbri, it was changed at Kingdom for a couple reasons:

  1. RfS III.1.a - Linguistic Consistency - Each phrase must be grammatically correct according to the usage of a single language.
  2. <Cimbri> citation indicates that the region is listed as "Cimbrica", indicating that "Cimbri" would be the name of a people.

Based on the commentary, and with further consultation between the submitter and Æstel, the submitter has opted for the form as forwarded.

Tole Semestre. Device. Per chevron vert and azure, three needles bendwise sinister and a pawprint argent.

This item was pended on the January 2012 internal letter for minor redraw.

We also note the following precedent for the blazon:

Ia ingen Áeda. Device. Per chevron gules and argent, three mullets of six points in chevron argent and a quatrefoil gules.

This was pended on the January 2008 LoAR.

As two types of charges lying on either side of a line of division, this is four co-primary charges, not a primary and three secondary charges. There is no way the quatrefoil could be the sole primary without having it overlie the line of division. We apologize to the submitter that the advice given previously was incorrect. Please direct the submitter to draw the mullets and the quatrefoil of more equivalent size.

This item was registered on the September 2008 LoAR via Northshield.

Lions Blood has returned the following items for further work:

Kreszentia of Cimbri. Name and device.

The items were withdrawn by the submitter, and new items have been submitted for commentary.

Kylea. Name and device.

This name is returned for RfS III.2.a:

Personal Names - A personal name must contain a given name and at least one byname; each of these components will be called a name phrase. A byname is any name added to the given name to identify its bearer more precisely. Most period names contained no more than three name phrases; as a rule of thumb a personal name should not contain more than four name phrases. (A documentable exception is Arabic, in which longer period names can fairly easily be found; an example is Abû 'Abd Allâh Muhammad ibn Isma'îl ibn Mughîrah al-Bukhârî 'Muhammad, father of 'Abd Allâh, son of Isma'îl, the son of Mughîrah, the Bukharan.)

We also note that there are no period names in Gaelic that begin with "K".

The device is returned for lack of a suitable name to associate with it. Had there been a suitable name, however, it would have been returnable per RfS VIII.7.b:

Reconstruction Requirement - Elements must be reconstructible in a recognizable form from a competent blazon.

Any element used in Society armory must be describable in standard heraldic terms so that a competent heraldic artist can reproduce the armory solely from the blazon. Elements that cannot be described in such a way that the depiction of the armory will remain consistent may not be used, even if they are identifiable design motifs that were used before 1600. For example, the Tree of Life occurs as a decorative element in period and is readily identifiable as such, but it may not be used in armory since it cannot be defined in a manner that guarantees its consistent depiction.

We note the charge blazoned as a "phoenix" was not a phoenix. A phoenix is defined as an eagle-like bird issuant from flames. This charge could be described as a Russian firebird, which is characteristic tail, and we recommend as much. However, its rather three-dimensional posture, coupled with the unidentifiable flames begs a redraw into a more standard heraldic form.

We uncovered what appears to be the source of the artwork that was used in this submission, and advise the submitter that good modern art is not, in general, good heraldic art. On resubmission, we urge the submitter to consult any standard source of heraldic art to gain better knowledge of period heraldic style.

Hrafna-Úlfr of the Cimbri. Device. Per bend sinister sable and Or, an arrow inverted bendwise sinister gules between a wolf's head erased argent and a raven close bendwise sinister sable.

This item is returned per RfS VIII.7.b:

Reconstruction Requirement - Elements must be reconstructible in a recognizable form from a competent blazon.

Any element used in Society armory must be describable in standard heraldic terms so that a competent heraldic artist can reproduce the armory solely from the blazon. Elements that cannot be described in such a way that the depiction of the armory will remain consistent may not be used, even if they are identifiable design motifs that were used before 1600. For example, the Tree of Life occurs as a decorative element in period and is readily identifiable as such, but it may not be used in armory since it cannot be defined in a manner that guarantees its consistent depiction.

Specifically, the following issues exist:

  • The wolf's neck was neither erased nor couped. A wolf's head couped would terminate in a straight line; erased would possess more and deeper tears. The depiction as submitted could at best be called doubly-embowed bendwise sinister.
  • The bird was in an unblazonable posture. The bird image consisted of just the head and wing, without a body, in a non-heraldic posture typical of modern folk and fantasy art.
  • We recommend the arrow be increased in size.
  • The submission appeared to have been rendered using crayon or colored pencil. We recommend, on resubmission, that Crayola or Rose Art markers be used.

We uncovered what appears to be the source of the artwork that was used in this submission, and advise the submitter that good tattoo art is not, in general, good heraldic art. On resubmission, we urge the submitter to consult any standard source of heraldic art to gain better knowledge of period heraldic style.

1: Aleassandra Le Fevre - New Name Change From Holding Name

Old Item: Lori of Mons Tonitrus, to be released.

• Submitter desires a female name.
• Sound most important.

The submitter's branch is Blatha an Oir.

The submitter's previous submission of Alizaunde Thorgiersson was returned in October 2002 by Laurel, at which time her current holding name of Lori of Mons Tonitrus was registered. The "Society Name" section of the form indicates a preferred spelling of Alizaunde Le Fevre but the "Name being submitted" section says Aleassandra Le Fevre.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

Aleassandra can be found in Arval Benicoeur's Feminine Given Names from the Online Castasto of Florence of 1427 (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/catasto). This Web site cites three women with this name. de' is a preposition indicating membership in a family.

Aryanhwy merch Catmael's article "French Surnames from Paris, 1421, 1423 & 1438" (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/paris1423surnames.html) dates the form Le Fevre to 1421, 1423 and 1438. This article also dates the form Lefevre to 1421. As the first of these forms preserves the capitalization show in the submitted form of this name, we have registered this name using that form. [Alexandria Le Fevre, 10/2003, A-Atenveldt]

( original submission Oct 2002 Under Alison, Withycombe comments that it (Alison) is a pet-name for Alice, formed by adding -on to the French A(a)lis; it was common in France from the 13th C. forward and often treated as an independent name (p. 16). Under Alice, the Old French form is listed as Aliz (pp. 15-16), which might suggest the spelling as Alizon. The submitter contends that Alizaunde could also be considered a diminutive of Aliz, based on the formation of Alizon. There is one instance of Alizaunde being registered by the CoA, to Alizaunde de Bregeuf, in November 1982 (aka, When Dinosaurs Rules the Earth). Any insight or support for this conjecture is appreciated.)

2: Andrew Crowe - New Badge

Fieldless, on a raven displayed head to sinister per bend gules & sable, a fret argent

The submitter's branch is Adiantum.

The submitter's name was registered in June 2008.

3: Aquaterra, Barony of - New Order Name

Order of the Wild Man

The Barony's name was registered in March 1983.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

Per Ursula Georges, "wild man" in OED dated to period. Email 8 Jul 2011:

"

The OED has an entry for 'wild man' as a noun. The term appeard c. 1290, and the exact spelling 'wild man' is dated to before 1400.

(If you look at the OED's entry for 'wild', there are lots of references to wild Welshmen, wild Scots, etc. from our period).

Ursula Georgii f.

"

3: Aquaterra, Barony of - New Badge

Argent, in fess a bear's jambe erased palewise sustained by a wild man gules, all within a bordure nebuly sable.

This submission is to be associated with Order of the Wild Man

The Barony's name was registered in August 2002.

4: Arabella Hawkyns - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• No major changes.
• Sound (spelling - want to retain "kyns" of Hawkyns) most important.

The submitter's branch is Silverhart.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

Arabella

Withycombe sn Arabel(la)

1255 - Arabella wife of John de Montpynçon

(1575-1615) Lady Arabella Stuart

Hawkyns

Reaney & Wilson sn Hawk

1539 - William Hawkys or Hawkyns

5: Beak Bell of Dumfries - Resub Device

Ermine, a frog vert, in chief sable three mushrooms argent

The submitter's name was registered in November 2011.

The submitter's previous device, Argent, a chevron sable between three frogs vert was returned by Lions Blood in August 2011 for the following reason:

Device is returned for conflict with Moire nic Greagair (device, 08/1999, East), Argent, a chevron sable between two oak trees eradicated and a thistle proper. There is a single CD for the type of tertiaries - both the oak trees and thistle are primarily vert so there is no CD for tincture.

6: Bellanette de Villaverde - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• Client requests authenticity for mid 15th century Spain.
• Sound (bell a net) most important.
• Language (15th c Spain) most important.
• Culture (15th c Spain) most important.

The submitter's branch is Blatha an Oir.

The following is quoted from the documentation of the form:

Bellanette: Jews in Catalonia: 1250-1400 - Women's Given Names

by Juliana de Luna (Julia Smith, julias@alumni.pitt.edu)

www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/catalan-jews/CatalanJews-given-women.html

de Villaverde: Spanish Names from the Late 15th Century

by Juliana de Luna (Julia Smith, julias@alumni.pitt.edu)

www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/isabella/surnames.html

6: Bellanette de Villaverde - New Device

Per pale argent & purpure, a pomegranate leaved counterchanged seeded Or

7: Bole Haxson - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• Sound (spelling) most important.
• Meaning (given name "bull") most important.

The submitter's branch is Silverhart.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

Anglo-Scandinavian name

<Bole>: from VAL http://www.vikinganswerlady.com/ONMensNames.shtml sn Bóli

<Hax>: ibid, sn Hákr

7: Bole Haxson - New Device

Argent, a bull's skull azure

8: Briana von der Ostwache - New Badge

(Fieldless) On an escallop inverted sable a fleur-de-lys argent

The submitter's branch is Dragon's Laire.

The submitter's name was registered in May 1997.

9: Caelia of the Blackforest - Resub Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• Sound most important.

The submitter's branch is Fire Mountain Keep.

The submitter's previous submission of Kylea was returned by Lions Blood in February 2011 for violation of RfS III.2.a, "Personal Names - A personal name must contain a given name and at least one byname... .".

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/list_of_Roman_Gentes

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caelia_(Gens)

Female form of Caelius or Coelius

9: Caelia of the Blackforest - Resub Device

Sable, a Russian firebird, displayed contourny Or winged and tail enflamed proper, maintaining a jessamine fesswise contourny purpure, the flower enflamed proper

The submitter's previous device similar emblazon was returned by Lions Blood in February 2011 for redrawing as well as a lack of name to attach it to.

10: Cynethryth of the Cimbri - Resub Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• No changes.
• Sound most important.
• Meaning (cyn - strength and protection) most important.

The submitter's branch is Fire Mountain Keep.

The submitter's previous submission of Kreszentia of Cimbri was withdrawn by the submitter in favour of this submission.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

www.infernaldreams.com

www.1066.co.nz/library/queens2/chp21.html

Anglo-Saxon England 2001

Britain AD: A quest for Arthur 2009

Ecclesiastical History of the English People

In search of the dark ages, BBC books

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, Phoenix Press

10: Cynethryth of the Cimbri - Resub Device

Argent, a dragon displayed contourny purpure, winged azure, maintaining a lily azure, slipped vert, stem and tail nowed in a wake knot

The submitter included the following note on the device form:

Side note: lily can be found at website heraldry-armoury-and-more.com

11: Eadgyth de Cercehede - New Name

The submitter's branch is Blatha an Oir.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

Preferred spelling of byname is Chelched

Eadgyth - [Searle] p181

Cercehede - Domesday Book

Locative form of byname

In addition to the notes on the form, the submitter sent an email stating:

Hello, I consulted on and submitted my name and device this weekend. Mine was for Eadgyth de Cercehede, but I was hoping for the Surname Chelched. I've found the page of the Domesday Book were Chelched is printed! Here it is on page 9 of Middlesex county: http://domesdaymap.co.uk/book/middlesex/09/

It is at the bottom of the left column, under the heading for Edward Serisber, where it is crossed out and above it is written Cercehede.

I believe it was [name redacted] that I consulted with on this. If someone could add this to my documentation I think it would greatly help.

-[name redacted]

Edith de Chelched

Eadgyth de Cercehede

11: Eadgyth de Cercehede - New Device

Or, a lily of the valley vert flowered argent between flaunches gules.

12: Eiríkr mac Brendan - New Name

The submitter's branch is Wyewood.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

Eiríkr: GB p9

Brendon: Woulfe sn Brendon

The submitter consented to the change in byname to mac Brénainn via e-mail conversation with Lions Blood and Sable Chime to eliminate the lingual inconsistency present.

12: Eiríkr mac Brendan - New Device

Per bend argent goutte de sang and sable, a cloud sable.

13: Elric NorÞmon - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• No major changes.
• Sound most important.

The submitter's branch is An Tir (Columbia County, WA).

The submitter includes a note that changes to the 'NorÞmon' element are okay.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

"Elric": pg 266 Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum: 1897. Searle, William George.

"NorÞmon": PASE (Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England) database entry

Bosworth-Toller Anglo-Saxon Dictionary entry

Excerpt from "A Companion to Baugh & Cable's History of the English Language"

(see attached and associated notes)

13: Elric NorÞmon - New Device

Sable, a shark - carcharhinus levcas - biting and a chief engrailed argent

14: Eoin Mac an tSaoir - Resub Device

Per fess, vert and argent An open book argent And a cross formy fitchy gules

The submitter's branch is Aquaterra.

The submitter's name was registered in March 2011.

The submitter's previous device of similar emblazon was returned by Laurel in March 2011 for the following reason:

Eoin Mac an tSaoir. Device. Per fess vert and argent, an open book argent and a Latin cross gules.

The submitter argued, and kingdom supported, the idea that we should limit the protection of the Red Cross motif to equal-armed couped crosses. While we sympathize with this perspective, and admit that the American Red Cross supports it, the International Committee of the Red Cross does not.

Commentary on the Second 1949 Geneva Convention (found at http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/COM/370-580048?OpenDocument), says in part:

The records of the Diplomatic Conference of 1906 are, moreover, explicit: the Conference deliberately refrained from defining the form of the cross [p.230] since definition might have led to dangerous abuses. The reasons are clear. If the form of the cross had been rigidly defined, attempts might have been made to justify attacks on objects protected by the Convention on the pretext that the emblems displayed were not of the prescribed proportions. Similarly, unscrupulous persons could have taken advantage of a rigid definition to use a slightly larger or slightly smaller red cross for commercial purposes.

As this is the official policy of the International Committee of the Red Cross regarding representations of a treaty-protected motif, we have no choice but to confirm this. We will continue to prohibit "the use of a red straight armed cross with flat, couped ends to the arms on any white background, or in any way that could be displayed on a white background, including as a tertiary charge, even if some of the arms are elongated so that it is not blazonable exactly as a cross couped gules."

15: Hafr-Tóki - New Alternate Name

Þorkell Hrútsson

The submitter's branch is Aquaterra.

The submitter's primary name was registered in December 2010.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

Given name Þorkell from Geirr Bassi p16; primary source Landnámabók

Byname Hrútsson stemmed from Geirr Bassi p11 (Hrútr); primary source Landnámabók; patronymic formed from genitive (Hrúts-) + son

16: Hafr-Tóki and Oddr mjǫksiglandi - New Badge

(Fieldless) In fess a comet Or sustained by a goat rampant pean.

The submitters' branch is Aquaterra.

Hafr-Tóki was registered in December 2010. Oddr mjǫksiglandi was registered in March 2011.

The blazon of "a goat rampant pean" follows the blazon used for Hafr-Tóki's registered badge, (Fieldless) A goat rampant pean. [Nov 2011, An Tir].

17: John de Percy - New Badge

Fieldless, a wolf's jambe erased bendwise sustaining a crossbow bendwise sinister nocked with a bolt Or

The submitter's branch is Wyewood.

The submitter's name was registered in October 2003.

18: Karl von der Ostwache - Resub Badge

(Fieldless) Issuant from a tower per fess argent and sable, a beacon argent enflamed gules

The submitter's branch is Dragon's Laire.

The submitter's name was registered in October 1992.

19: Katla skytja - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• Client requests authenticity for Old Norse.
• Language (Old Norse) most important.

The submitter's branch is Blatha an Oir.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

katla - GB pg24

skytya - GB pg27

20: Lianor Pereira do Valle - New Name

• No changes.

The submitter's branch is Wyewood.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

Lianor - Portuguese Feminine Name from Lisbon, 1565

www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/portuguese/fem1565.html

Portuguese Names 1350-1450

www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/portuguese

Pereira - Portuguese Names 1350-1450

www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/portuguese

do Valle - Portuguese Surnames Name from Lisbon, 1565

www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/portuguese/sur1565.html

20: Lianor Pereira do Valle - New Device

Per chevron ployé inverted gules and sable, a chevron ployé argent between a sunflower Or seeded sable and two arrows points to base Or

21: Máel Brigte ingen Aimirgen - New Badge

(Fieldless) A brazier gules

The submitter's branch is Mountain Edge.

The submitter's name was registered in April 2011.

22: Marcos Amador de Villaverde - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• Client requests authenticity for mid 15th century Spain.
• Language most important.
• Culture most important.

The submitter's branch is Blatha an Oir.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

Marcos & Amador: Portuguese Masculine Names from Lisbon, 1565

by Aryanhwy merch Catmael (Sara L. Uckelman)

www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/portuguese/masc1565.html

Marcos - 7 times Amador - 13 times

de Villaverde: Spansih [sic] Names from the Late 15th Century

by Juiana [sic] de Luna (Julia Smith, julias@alumni.pitt.edu)

www.s-gabriel.org/names/juiana/isabella/surnames.html

Sable Chime notes: The correct url is www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/isabella/surnames.html

Submitter strongly prefers the double given name but if it cannot be registered he is willing to drop Amador.

22: Marcos Amador de Villaverde - New Device

no blazon provided

23: Marcos Amador de Villaverde and Bellanette de Villaverde - New Badge

no blazon provided

This item will be a joint badge with Bellanette de Villaverde.

24: Maulore la Mandeta - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• No major changes.
• Client requests authenticity for France.
• Sound ('m' sound) most important.
• Language (French) most important.
• Culture (French) most important.
• Meaning most important.

The submitter's branch is Rhuddglyn.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

www.sca.org

An Index to the given names in the 1292 Census of Paris by Lord Colm Dubh © 1996, 2005 Scott Catledge

Sable Chime notes: The article can be found at http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/paris.html.

Late Period Feminine Names from the South of France by Talan Gwynek (Brian M. Scott)

Sable Chime notes: The article can be found at http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/latefrenchfem.html

24: Maulore la Mandeta - New Device

Per bend sinister Or and azure, on a lion rampant paley Or and Azure, a Fleur-de-lys Gules, a Bordure Invected Gules

25: Myrick the Bear - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• Sound most important.

The submitter's branch is Dragon's Laire.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

"The Bear": "Oxford: A Dictionary of English Surnames, P.H. Reaney and R.M. Wilson, Oxford University Press, 1997, Page 34. 'Bear, Beara, Beare, Beer, Beers, de le Bere: ...In Devon and neighboring counties of Somerset and Dorset, it had a dative beara, ME bere. (ii) Tedric' Vrs' 1130 P (O); Theodoricus le Bere 1166 Oseney (O); Ralph Bere 1177 P (Nf); Nicholas le Urs 1219 AssSt; Robert le Beer 1296 SRSx. OE bera 'bear' (translated by Latin ursus, OFr urs)'".

"Myrick": http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/talanWelsh16.htm

Sable Chime notes: Article is 'Late Sixteenth Century Welsh Names' by Talan Gwynek.

25: Myrick the Bear - New Device

no blazon provided

26: Padraig Blair - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• Client requests authenticity for language and/or culture: 13th century Lowland Scots w/ Gaelic influence.
• Language (Lowland Scots w/ Gaelic influence) most important.
• Culture (Lowland Scots w/ Gaelic influence) most important.

The submitter's branch is Vulcanfeldt.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

Padraig Scottish Gaelic Given Names for Men by Sharon L. Krossa

1401-1500

Blair Early 16th Century Scottish Lowland Names by Sharon L Kross<?>

Blair 1521 (sn<?>Blair)

27: Robert of Berwick - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• Client requests authenticity for language and/or culture and time period: English-Scottish border bountry, 12th to 13th Century.
• Language (English) most important.
• Culture (English) most important.

The submitter's branch is Montengarde.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

Robert - a common Men's given name from 13th Century England (Reference: Men's Given Names from Early 13th Century England by Talan Gwynek http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/talan/eng13/). Robert is also the submitters legal middle name (see attachment) [Oddr notes: submitter has provided a government-issued Operator's Licence showing mundane name as described.]

Berwick - A locative English by-name (Reference: A Collection of 613 English Borough Names for Use in Locative Bynames By Lord Frederic Badger, Black Stag Herald, An Tir

http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/badger/placenames.html#intro).

28: Roderick Greatwood - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• No major changes.
• Language (unspecified) most important.
• Culture (unspecified) most important.

The submitter's branch is Glymm Mere.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

"Roderick"

E.G Withycombe, The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names, 3rd Edition, page 255

"Greatwood"

Reany & Wilson, The Oxford Dictionary of English Surnames, page 204

28: Roderick Greatwood - New Device

Per pale purpure and Or, a kraken counterchanged.

29: Roderick Greatwood - New Badge

(Fieldless) A kraken per pale Or and purpure.

30: Rosamund of the Misty Meadows - New Badge

(Feldless) A heron's head couped argent engorged of a coronet sable pearled Or, maintaining in its beak an eel sable.

The submitter's branch is Aquaterra.

The submitter's name was registered in October 1983.

The submitter was made a Baroness of the Court on December 3, 2011, by Thorin VII and Dagmaer II of An Tir and is thus entitled to the use of a baronial coronet on her badge.

31: Sofia de Toledo - New Name

• No major changes.
• Client requests authenticity for 12-14th Century Spain.

The submitter's branch is Wyewood.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

"de Toledo" is dated to 1567 in Late Period Spanish Names from Seville, by Aryanhwy merch Catmael (http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/spanish/silversmiths.html)

It also appears in Spanish Names from the Late 15th Century by Juliana de Luna (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/isabella/)

"Sofia" is Italian, and can be found in Names from Sixteenth Century Venice by Juliana de Luna (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/16thcvenice.html)

Italian and Spanish is registerable with a step from period practice (Helena Seren de Luna, 08/01)

32: Summits, Principality of the - New Order Name

Impresa di Schermidori

• No major changes.
• Language (Italian language) most important.

The Principality's name was registered in November 1992.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

This order follows the pattern "Orders named for a group of people" as shown in 'Medieval Secular Order Names' by Juliana de Luna (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/order/new/).

'Impresa' is a period Italian designator for orders as demonstrated in Juliana's article; "La impresa del signor Re l'Armellino". See also the entry here: http://vocabolario.biblio.signum.sns.it/cgi-bin/Vocabolario/search_context?rimando=1&pattern=IMPRESA.&tag_n=ENTRY&attr_n=ID&attr_v=Q361.

'Schermidori' is the plural form of 'schermidore', the period word for 'fencer' in Italian. http://vocabolario.biblio.signum.sns.it/cgi-bin/Vocabolario/search_context?rimando=1&pattern=SCHERMIDORE.&tag_n=ENTRY&attr_n=ID&attr_v=AI9.

The translation of this order is meant to be along the lines of 'enterprise of the fencers'.

33: Summits, Principality of the - New Order Name

Order of the Silver Chamfron

• No major changes.

The Principality's name was registered in November 1992.

Submitter cares most about spelling.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

This order follows the pattern "Orders named for a heraldic charge" as shown in 'Medieval Secular Order Names' by Juliana de Luna (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/order/new/).

'Silver' is one of the ordinary color words for "argent". The OED, s.n. silver, dates this spelling to c1340.

'Chamfron' is a constructed spelling; the OED, s.n. chamfron, has the spellings 'shamfron' and 'chaufrain' dated to period.

34: Summits, Principality of the - New Order Name

Vanguard of the White Gryphon

• No major changes.

The Principality's name was registered in November 1992.

Submitter cares most about spelling, and indicates "inclusion of 'vanguard'".

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

This order follows the pattern "Orders named for a heraldic charge" as shown in 'Medieval Secular Order Names' by Juliana de Luna (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/order/new/).

'Vanguard' is intended to be a synonym for 'company', which is its medieval meaning. The OED, s.n. vanguard, gives the meaning as "Mil. The foremost division of an army; the forefront or van." The earliest examples with this meaning date to 1487 (1380). The spelling 'vanguarde' is dated to 1503, and dropping the terminal /e/ is common in the English language. This word is intended to be the heraldic designator, much like "Company" or "Order" would be. We note that the Order of the Garter was known as both "Order of the Garter" and "Company of the Garter" in Juliana's article (listed above).

'White' is the ordinary color word for "argent" and this spelling is dated in the OED, s.n. white adj., to a1300.

The gryphon is a heraldic charge dating to 1244. <Gryphon> is a constructed spelling based on the following argument (courtesy of Dame Ursula Georges): The OED s.v. <griffin>, says that <gryphon> is found from the 1500s onward in the Spellings section. Dated spellings of the word from before 1650 in this entry are: 'griffon', c. 1386; 'grifphon, girffon, grefoun', c. 1400; 'griffoune'c c. 1425; 'gryffons', 1481; 'griphin'. 1567; 'griffon', 1601; 'gryphin', 1620; 'gryffoune', ?a 1400; 'greffons' 1439; 'gryffoun', 1460; 'griffens', 1552; 'griffin', 1640. This data shows that <y> and < i > could be used interchangeably for the first vowel, that <fph>, <ff>, <f>, and <ph> were all possible spellings of the /f/ sound, and that the final vowel could be spelled <o>, <ou>, < I >, or <e>. Thus, <gryphon> is also plausible as a constructed spelling.

35: Summits, Principality of the - New Order Name

Order of the Lark and Mountain

• No major changes.

The Principality's name was registered in November 1992.

Submitter cares most about spelling.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

This order follows the pattern "Orders named for a heraldic charge" as shown in 'Medieval Secular Order Names' by Juliana de Luna (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/order/new/).

A lark is a heraldic charge; this spelling is dated to c1360 in the OED, s.n. lark.

A mountain is also a heraldic charge; this spelling is constructed from entries in the OED, s.n. mountain. Listed are 'mountayne'and 'mountaines'. Both dropping the terminal /e/ and a switch between /i/ and /y/ are well-documented in the English language.

36: Thora Husewyf - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• No major changes.
• Sound most important.
• Meaning most important.

The submitter's branch is not given, but is likely Kaldor Ness.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

Reaney, P.H., "A Dictionary of English Surnames",

http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/reaneyHZ.html

(see attached entries)

+ associated notes

The following is quoted from handwritten notes on the attached documentation pages:

Selection from the SCA article, showing the Anglicized form of Old Norse "Þora" ocuring in the late 1100's + early 1200s

Selection from the SCA article detailing "Husewyf"s appearance in the early 1300s.

I hope it will be an acceptable form of a surame (denoting occupation) due to its meaning (as listed above.).

37: Tormod Ljotr - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.

The submitter's branch is Myrgan Wood.

<br /><br />

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

<br /><br />

The lore of the Clan MacLeod of the Isle of Skye holds that Leod (Ljotr in Old Norse) was the son of King Olav the Black of the Isle of Ma and the Isles in the 13th Century. It is said that Leod/Ljotr had two sons; Tormod and Torquil (sometimes said to be a grandson). Tormod went to the Isle of Skye and founded the Clan MacLeod upon it (by peaceful and legitimate means it is claimed). Tormod (sometimes listed as Norman) was a common name for clan chiefs in the 16th Century and afterwards to reflect this claim. Scotland took over the Isle of Skye from Norwegian rules in 1266.

<br /><br />

Sources 1) "THE MacLEODS OF DUNVEGAN" BY THE REV. CANON R.C. MACLEOD OF MACLEOD 1927 URL: www.electricscotland.com/webclans/m/macleodsofdunvegan.pdf

2) URL: WWW.MACLEODGENEOLOGY.ORG/RESEARCH/APMACLEOD.HTML (2000)

3) URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leod , sources trace to Geirr Bassi Haraldsson (1977)

37: Tormod Ljotr - New Device

Per pale azure and argent, a snowflake counter-changed, on a chief gules, two bull's heads caboshed argent.

38: Ulfrhrafn of the Cimbri - Resub Device

no blazon provided

The submitter's branch is Fire Mountain Keep.

The submitter's name was forwarded to Laurel in February 2011.

The submitter's previous device of similar emblazon was returned in February 2011 by Lions Blood for redrawing.

Thus concludes the February 2012 Internal Letter, this 8th day of February, AS 46.

I remain, in service to the An Tir College of Heralds,

Lady Elizabeth Turner de Carlisle, GdS

Sable Chime Herald

An Tir OSCAR counts: 17 New Names, 1 New Name Change, 1 New Alternate Name, 5 New Order Names, 11 New Devices, 9 New Badges. This gives 44 new items. Resub counts: 2 Resub Names, 5 Resub Devices, 1 Resub Badge. This is a total of 8 resubmissions on this letter, for a total of 52 actions.

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