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An Tir IL dated 2009-01-30 (Jump to Submissions)

Unto Gwenlian Black Lion, Caitrina Lions Blood and the esteemed members of the An Tir College of Heralds to whom this missive comes, Lí Ban ingen Echtigeirn, Boar Herald, sends greetings and felicitations.

COMMENTARY ON THIS LETTER IS DUE ON THE 10TH OF MARCH, 2009.

The following Lions Blood meetings will be held on at 1:00pm at Caitrina Lions Blood's home (3174 Sechelt Dr., Coquitlam, BC).

January meeting - Sunday, February 15, 2009

February meeting - Sunday, March 22, 2009

March meeting - Sunday, April 19, 2009

Directions: Make your best way to Vancouver, BC. Get onto the Trans Canada Hwy (Hwy 1) if you're not already on it. Take the Lougheed Hwy exit (Exit 44). You should be going NE. Follow Lougheed Hwy until it turns into Pinetree Way. Follow Pinetree Way to Guildford Way. Turn right. Follow Guildford Way to Ozada Ave (Guildford Way turns into Ozada Ave.). Follow Ozada Ave. to Inlet St (first right). Turn right. Follow Inlet St. to Sechelt Dr. (first left). Turn left. Look for #3174.

Alternatively, follow the directions provided courtesy of Google Maps:

http://maps.google.ca/maps?f=q&hl=en&geocode=&q=3174+Sechelt+Dr,+Coquitlam,+BC,+Canada&sll=49.891235,-97.15369&sspn=33.029007,88.769531&ie=UTF8&z=16&iwloc=addr&om=1

FROM LIONS BLOOD

Greetings unto the An Tir College of Heralds from Caitrina Lions Blood!

It has been a difficult few months of late within our office with hopes that things will get better soon. We will have a backlog of submissions that I'm hoping we can get through and published as quickly as possible to ensure the best possible service to our submitters in these difficult times. Everyone's patience and support has been heartfelt and I thank you for that. I especially want to thank those who without their constant efforts, we would have found ourselves in dire straights. Things would have been much worse without their help. Gwenlian Black Lion, Juliana Æstel and Li Ban Boar have been the backbone throughout the last few months, have worked within very tight deadlines to ensure the ILoI for December and January happened with the limited information we had at our disposal and kept my hairline in tact. Elizabeth Sinister Gauntlet for her support and constant dedication to her area of responsibility. It was wonderful not to even have to think about notifications because they are in such efficient hands. The Laurel Staff who came to our rescue over a packet that went missing not once but twice! (steps have been put in place to ensure this NEVER happens again). I thank those involved at the Laurel level who went far and beyond to ensure our submitters did not suffer. And finally thank you to those who offered their constant support and service in any way possible. Believe me, if it was possible I would have snatched that offer up faster than I do Richenda's wonderful shortbread.

As I said, it's been a difficult few months. It has shown me once again the shining examples of service found within our College and abroad who came together to ensure the work got done and the submitters are well represented.

In Service to Kingdom and College,

Caitrina Lions Blood

LAUREL ACTIONS

The following is an excerpt from the cover letter of the October 2008 LoAR:

From Pelican: Changes to Da'ud notation

On the February 1996 Cover Letter, Laurel adopted a proposal of "a simple scheme for representing non-ASCII characters". This notation has since come to be known as "Da'ud notation", and additions are made to it as needed.

One non-ASCII character that was defined was a vowel with an umlaut or diaeresis. On the February 1996 Cover Letter, the symbol for the umlaut or diaeresis was given as ", that is, {o"} was used to represent ö. This has been a source of confusion, because at the time of adoption and afterwards, many people used : for the umlaut or diaeresis, e.g. ö for ö. The choice of " instead of : was made because "[Laurel himself has been convinced that {o"} is the more widely used convention.]" However, it appears that this definition has been pretty much continuously ignored in favor of : to represent the umlaut or diaeresis.

We hereby redefine the use of " in Da'ud notation. We formally define the colon as the symbol to be used to indicate an umlaut or diaeresis. The double-quote will henceforth be used to indicate two acute accents when following a letter, and two grave accents when preceding a letter. The double acute accent is found in various Hungarian words, and indeed the use of " to represent the double acute accent has already been used in previous LoARs.

We also extend Da'ud notation to cover some Turkish letters whose transliteration into the Roman alphabet present problems. Turkish has both an <'i'> with a dot (both in the capital and the lower-case versions) and an <'i'> without a dot (again, both in the capital and the lower-case versions). It is difficult to come up with a uniform way of representing these letters in plain ASCII given that in the Roman alphabet, lower-case <'i'> has a dot but capital <'I'> does not. On the November 2007 LoAR, Laurel defined {I.} to stand for the upper-case I-with-dot. We now define the Da'ud notation for the lower-case i-without-dot to be {i}. Thus, the four Turkish is are indicated as follows:

- i: lower-case i-with-dot

- {I.}: upper-case I-with-dot

- {i}: lower-case i-without-dot

- I: upper-case I-without-dot

The following is an exerpt from the cover letter of the November 2008 LoAR

From Laurel: Cross-Kingdom Submission

A situation arose this month where a submitter from one kingdom was visiting another, and submitted a badge at an event in the visited kingdom. Our policy has been, for quite some time, that submissions must be made through heraldic officers of the kingdom of which the person is a subject, and we are forced by those rules to return the submission.

We want to encourage heraldry and heraldic submissions, not discourage them due to arbitrary rules. When submissions are received from other kingdom's subjects, the proper procedure is to contact the kingdom-of-residence and pass the submission to that kingdom.

Kingdoms, and their principal and submissions heralds, should make allowance for this practice, especially for students and military personnel. Returns based solely on the fact that the submissions were received through another kingdom, or that these submissions are on another kingdom's forms, are highly discouraged. Use of another kingdom's forms is acceptable. Please see the February 2008 Cover Letter ("From Laurel: Forms").

From Pelican: Changes to the Alternate Titles

This month we considered a number of proposed changes to the Russian titles on the Alternate Titles List. We'd like to thank Lady Sofya Rous for the time and effort she put in to researching these proposals. The result of her research was both interesting and informative to read. For those who are interested, Sofya has made her proposal available on the web at http://www.strangelove.net/~kieser/Russia/RATP/RAT-List-Revision.doc. It was also the Calontir July 19, 2008 Letter of Intent.

Before we can discuss the changes which are being adopted and those which are not, we first need to make a distinction between three different, but related, things: titles, ranks, and forms of address. Rank is something that a person has, a title is something that he is called, and a form of address is something that is used to address him in speech. The differences are best understood with some examples. The SCA makes a distinction of rank between landed barons and court barons; however, in both cases, the title is baron and the form of address is 'your excellency'. In some cases, there is no difference between the rank and the title: a holder of an Award of Arms has both the rank of lord and title of lord, and is properly addressed as 'my lord'. In other cases, there is no difference between the title and the form of address: a person with the rank of knight uses sir both as a title and as a form of address. In still other cases, different ranks may use the same title; for example, holders of Awards of Arms and holders of Grant of Arms have different ranks, but both use the titles lord and lady. Similarly, the rank of heir of a kingdom is not the same as the rank of territorial prince, but the title prince is used in both cases.

The proposal by Lady Sofya contained the appropriate medieval Russian terms for various ranks, titles, and forms of address. Of ranks, titles, and forms of address, the Alternate Titles List only legislates titles. This means that some of Lady Sofya's proposals will not be adopted, because they do not involve titles, but rather ranks and terms of address.

In light of the information in Lady Sofya's proposal, we are adding the following titles to the alternate titles list:

- Velikii Kniaz (King) - Sofya cites Michell & Forbess, viii, xx, saying that "the title 'velikii kniaz' was used as the primary title of the Russian sovereign for the majority of the SCA period". It translates literally to 'grand prince'.

- Velikaia Kniagina (Queen) - This is the feminine form of Velikii Kniaz, found in Russian texts dating from 1284 to 1486.

- Kniazhich (Prince) - this literally means 'son of the Kniaz', and is appropriate for use by the male heir to a kingdom. The Russian chronicle year 882 refers to the knaizhich Igor 'Igor the prince's son'.

- Kniazhna (Princess) - this literally means 'daughter of the Kniaz', and is appropriate for use by the female heir to a kingdom. A record from 1573 refers to the daughter of kniaz Vladimir Andreevich as kniazhna.

- Kniaz (Prince) - this term was used for rulers of principalities such as Kiev, Chernigov, Galich, Ryazan, etc. These rulers were officially subordinate to the Velikii Kniaz. This title is appropriate for use by rulers of a principality.

- Kniagina (Princess) - this is the expected feminine form of Kniaz.

- Dvorianin (Lord) - the term dvorianin is used throughout our period for members of the dvorianstvo, the lower level of the two tiers of Russian nobility.

- Dvorianka (Lady) - while no period examples of this term were found, it is the expected feminine form of Dvorianin.

These are intended to supplement Tsar, Tsarina, Tsarevich, Tsarevna, Pomestnik, and Pomestnitsa, not replace them.

The following title is removed from the list of Russian alternate titles:

- Voevoda (Baroness) - The available evidence indicates that this term was only used by men in our period.

Voevoda (Baroness) is replaced by Voevodsha (Baroness), the expected feminine form of Voevoda which appears in early 17th C records.

We are not adopting the following proposals, since Sofya's information indicates that each of these are words for ranks, and not titles.

- Druzhinnik (Knight)

- Druzhinnitsa (Dame)

- Namestnik (Court Baron)

- Namesnitsa (Court Baroness)

- Dvorianin Bolshoi/Syn Boiarskii (male holder of a GoA)

- Dvorianka Bolshaia/Doch' Boiarskaia (female holder of a GoA)

We are not adopting the following proposals, since Sofya's information indicates that they are forms of address, and not titles.

- Gospodin'' (My lord)

- Gospozha (My lady)

- Gospoda (My lords and ladies)

We are not adopting the proposal that Masteritsa be added as an alternate for Mistress. While some sources translate Masteritsa as 'mistress', other sources translate it as 'seamstress; worker in a sewing or hatmaking shop'. The February 1997 Cover Letter, which contains the proposed changes to the Russian alternate titles prepared by Lady Predslava Vydrina, says:

There is no feminine form of the Russian word "master." The modern Russian word "masteritsa" means "skilled woman" (not "master craftswoman") and does not reflect any other aspect of the English word "master." In addition, it does not seem to have been used in period at all. I suggest the masculine form be used as an alternative for "Mistress" as well as for "Master."

Because this term could be used to describe someone who has a rank or status that corresponds to one lower than an SCA peerage, and because no new evidence was provided showing that Masteritsa was used in our period, we are reluctant to restrict its use to members of the peerages.

The last three proposals concern the use of Boiar/Boiarin/Boiarynia. Sofya's proposal says:

By far the most common term for members of the nobility in period Russian texts is boiare. Some have suggested that boiarin/boiarynia should be reserved for Lords and Ladies of all ranks. However, others have felt that the terms boiarin/boiarynia should be reserved for the higher ranks of SCA nobility, such as the Peerages and Baronetcies. Because of this disagreement [sic], the title of boiarin/boiarynia wsa omitted from the current alternate titles list.

Some period Russian hierarchies may help clarify this debate...It is clear that throughout period, the boyars are an upper level of society with various inferior ranks between them and commoners...The above lists also indicate that the titles of the inferior ranks are a little difficult to pin down. It may be helfpul [sic] to consider that the two Russian words for 'the nobility' are 'boiarstvo' and 'dvorianstvo'. [Katzner, Sreznevskij Vol 1 p 163]...In all situations where relative rank can be evaluated, dvorianin is clearly inferior to boiarin.

These issues illustrate the problems with trying to map a medieval rank structure, which changed over time, onto the SCA rank structure. There is not a clear one-to-one correspondence between the Russian ranks and the SCA ranks. While it is clear that the boiarin should rank above the dvorianin, it is not clear whether we should restrict the terms Boiar/Boiarynia to the peers and barons of the SCA. Because of the flexibility of the terms over time, we are reluctant to restrict their usage to the upper level of ranks in the SCA. At this time, we will not adopt the proposals to restrict Boiar/Boiarynia to peers and barons.

From Wreath: On Wreaths

In July, Jeanne Marie Wreath asked two questions of the College of Arms. We also asked these questions of the entire SCA membership. Both of these questions concerned the use of laurel wreaths in armory.

We would like to thank the large number of people that responded to these questions. Over 100 pages of commentary was generated solely on these issues.

The first question concerned whether or not the requirement for groups to include laurel wreaths in their armory should be retained. Commentary generally fell into one or more of the following categories:

- "The stupid heralds shouldn't meddle."

- It's a tradition; we need to keep the tradition.

- New members need to be able to easily distinguish group armory.

- It's not period practice.

- It's a pain to design armory with them.

While we sympathize with the difficulty of designing group armory, consensus was overwhelmingly in favor of keeping this requirement. The requirement that official SCA groups include a laurel wreath in their armory is, therefore, retained.

The second question concerned whether members of the Order of the Laurel should be allowed to include laurel wreaths as charges in their armory. This question was specifically forwarded to the Order's Society-wide discussion list as well as the announcements list. While several people were in favor of allowing this, we must also consider the forty years of SCA history. It is common practice for barons and baronesses to wear their baronial arms in many situations, and the thirty five year requirement for including laurel wreaths means that there are hundreds of people who are not Laurels who would be eligible to wear and display a symbol theoretically reserved for the Order. While confusion may be period practice, we are not willing to add to it, and so we rule that members of the Order of the Laurel may not use laurel wreaths as charges in their armory.

From Wreath: Unrestricting Chains and Pelicans

In the discussion of Laurel Wreaths for Laurels, many commenters and several Companions of the Order of the Laurel mentioned that restricting charges in the shield for the use of members of a particular order is not a period heraldic practice. This is correct.

It is not a common SCA practice, either. There are roughly 2000 members of the Order of Chivalry. Approximately 30 of them have registered a closed loop of chain in their armory. There are probably a like number of members of the Order of the Pelican. Exactly one of them has registered a pelican in its piety as part of his armory.

Period practice would have the charge indicating membership in the order depicted as part of the achievement around the shield, not as a charge on the shield. A chain, or a laurel wreath, would be placed around the outside of the shield, as is seen in achievements of members of the Order of the Garter throughout its whole history. This can be seen in the modern display, as well: http://www.royalinsight.gov.uk/files/images/MTnew_public_honours_garterii.jpg depicts former British Prime Minister Sir John Major, processing in the Garter service at Windsor Castle; http://www.familynamesonline.com/imgs/shields/queeneaoa.jpg depicts the achievement of the sovereign of the UK. Note that the garter is around the shield, not part of it.

With this in mind, we ask what the populace and the members of the peerage orders would think of removing the restriction on closed loops of chain and pelicans in their piety? We note that the use of these items as regalia would still be reserved, and we are not minded to release the tinctureless registrations of the badges. The only difference is that any member of the SCA could use these charges in their arms.

We note that some kingdoms also register and record full achievements. The SCA College of Arms does not register or restrict achievements at this time: restrictions on achievements are left to the individual kingdoms. We would expect that those kingdoms would continue to restrict closed loops of chain and pelicans in their piety in achievements to the members of those Orders.

From Wreath: Charges for Laurels

SCA Corpora states that all of the peerages are and must remain equal. We note that this policy is intended to mean in rank, but we feel that keeping them equivalent in privilege is also important. Royal peers, Pelicans, and Chivalry all may register symbols of their rank in their armory. Since Laurels can not use laurel wreaths, there is nothing for Laurels to incorporate into their armory. If this situation is to be remedied by the addition of a reserved charge for Laurels, as opposed to removing restricted charges for individuals of the other peerages (as discussed above), we need to have something to represent the members of the Order in armory.

In the previous discussion, several people suggested a "laurel chaplet", the same as a wreath, but closed at the top. This suggestion shows a misunderstanding of the terms 'wreath' and 'chaplet'. The presence or absence of a gap at the top is not the difference.

In mundane blazon, a wreath is what we most commonly think of as a torse - Parker, in A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry, says it is the "twisted band composed of two strips of gold or silver lace and silk by which the crest is joined to the helmet; though some wreaths of the fifteenth century were of four tinctures. It is sometimes, but improperly, called a roll, at others a torse." Chaplets are, by the same source, "a garland of leaves with four flowers amongst them, at equal distances...it is more usual to designate the material of which the chaplet is composed. It may be of roses (and this, perhaps, is the most frequent) or of flowers generally, or it may be of leaves, and often of laurel leaves."

In Society blazon, the twisted band of cloth is blazoned a torse, while wreath refers to a full circle or near-circle of foliage; chaplet is frequently a synonym for wreath, though we note early precedents (oft-disregarded), ruling that chaplet of roses refers to the garland with four roses in cross, as described by Parker.

We request suggestions as to what charge could be used to represent Laurels if charges continue to be reserved for the peerages. The limitations are that it must be a period charge, and it must be a charge that has never been registered in the SCA. While this second requirement may seem insurmountable, Baron Bruce Draconarius has been making a study of just this subject, and we have asked him to provide the fruits of his labors for these suggestions.

From Wreath: Early Emblazons

Current policy, re-stated many times, is that we register the emblazon, not the blazon. While it is possible to take this stance with modern submissions registered while this policy has been in force, early submissions did not have our current standards. In many cases, charges are not even completely drawn, or were drawn in ways which, today, would be returned for being unrecognizable. At that time, the blazon was considered more important. We must, therefore, give more latitude to these earlier emblazons when evaluating conflict. Commenters, when examining these older emblazons, should keep this in mind.

The following items have been registered by Laurel

October 2008 LoAR

Adam Fairamay. Badge. Argent, two roses in saltire gules slipped within a wreath of ivy vert.

Blazoned on the LoI as argent, the forms had the 'fieldless' checkbox marked and the armory was explicitly blazoned as fieldless. No mention of whether this change was acceptable to the submitter was made on the LoI. Since this design cannot be fieldless, we will register it with the field. Mention of such changes should be explicit on the LoI..

Adiantum, Barony of. Order name Ordo Aurei Ursi.

Adiantum, Barony of. Order name Order of the Golden Comb.

Alexandria Sophie Kessler. Device. Sable, a lion rampant argent transfixed by a spear bendwise sinister inverted, in chief two swords fesswise points to center Or.

This is clear of Oliver Cromwell (important non-SCA armory), Sable, a lion rampant argent. There is a CD for the addition of the secondary swords and a CD for the addition of the sustained spear. While the definition of sustained is currently under discussion, that discussion relates to whether the spear would be co-primary or a secondary. In either case, the spear is large enough to count for difference, so the submission is clear with two CDs.

Alysaundre Weldon. Name.

Angharad Bach. Name.

Listed on the LoI as Angharad Vach, the name was originally submitted as Angharad Bach, and changed on the basis of Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn, "A Simple Guide to Constructing 13th C Welsh Names", which gives Vach as the mutated form of Bach and says "Women will always use the mutated form of a nickname". However, as Morgan and Morgan, Welsh Surnames, s.n. Bach, point out, the adjective bach is an exception to this otherwise fairly general rule. They give the following examples of women using the unmutated form: Alice Bache 1219, Efa Bach 1350-1415, and Marrion Bache 1578. Based on these examples, we have restored the name to the originally submitted form.

Armatus Kamateros. Device. Azure, a cross of Calvary potent argent and in chief three mullets of eight points Or.

There is at least significant difference between a Celtic cross and a cross of Calvary, so this device is clear of Lute MacAlpine, Per pale sable and vert, a Celtic cross argent and in chief three compass stars Or, with one CD for the field and one CD for the type of cross. We decline at this time to rule whether there is substantial difference between these crosses. Please see the August 2008 Cover Letter for a call for discussion on that issue.

Caitrina inghean Aindriasa. Badge. Argent, eight thistles in annulo stems to center proper.

Blazoned on the LoI as argent, the forms had the 'fieldless' checkbox marked and the armory was explicitly blazoned as fieldless. No mention of whether this change was acceptable to the submitter was made on the LoI. Since this design cannot be fieldless, we will register it with the field. Mention of such changes should be explicit on the LoI.

This is not a conflict with Scotland, (Fieldless) A thistle proper. There is a CD for the difference between a fieldless and fielded design and another CD for the change of number of primary charges.

Chiara Calandra. Name.

Ciaracán na Traga.. Name.

Submitted as Ciaragán na Traga, the only example of the given name that was found is from the 10th century; for this period, the Middle Irish form of the name, Ciaracán or Ciarucán, is appropriate. Ciaragán is the standardized Early Modern Irish form, appropriate for c. 1200 to c. 1700; lacking evidence that the name was in use in this period, the Early Modern Irish form Ciaragán is not registerable. We have changed the name to Ciaracán na Traga in order to register it. This name combines Middle and Early Modern Irish; this is one step from period practice.

Dearbháil ingean uí Dhonnchaidh. Badge. (Fieldless) A maunch vert ermined argent.

Please instruct the submitter to draw the ermine spots larger, so they are more recognizable.

Eawyn rindill. Name.

Submitted as Eowyn Rindill, the given name Eowyn was documented as an Old English feminine name constructed from the prototheme Eo- and the deuterotheme -wyn. However, no examples were provided, and none could be found, for Eo- being used as a prototheme in feminine names. Lacking such evidence, it cannot be combined with the feminine deuterotheme -wyn. The closest feminine name that the commenters found is Eawyn, which is found in the Latin oblique form Eawynne in Anglo-Saxon Charter S 517b, dated to 946. The Latin nominative form of Eawynne would be Eawynna, which most likely represents the Old English vernacular Eawyn or Eawynn.

The byname Rindill was documented as Old Norse. Precedent requires that Old Norse descriptive bynames which are not based on proper nouns or adjectives be registered in the lower case. We have changed the name to Eawyn rindill in order to register it.

Eawyn rindill. Alternate name Zeuzke Anna.

Submitted as Szösz(i)ke Anna, the submitter requested authenticity for Hungarian, cared most about the meaning "flaxen-haired", and did not allow major changes. Eastern Crown provides information on authentic forms of the name:

The bit in parentheses appears to stem from a misinterpretation of the dictionary entry: the notation indicates that there are two very similar words with the same meaning, szöszke and szöszike. The former (two-syllable) word does actually occur as a period byname, but in very different spellings: Zezke 1471, 1509; Zhewzke 1549 (Kázmér p. 1028 s.n. Szöszke).

Bynames alluding to haircolor in period Hungarian generally omit the word 'hair' (haj) or 'haired' (hajú). The two exceptions in Kázmér both happen to refer to light-colored hair: Sárhajú (related to sárga 'yellow'), which indicates blond hair, and Szárhajú, which indicates blond or strawberry blond hair. Period spellings s.n. Sárhajú (p. 914): Sarhayo 1401, 1408/1409, 1471; Sarhayw 1421, 1430, 1458, 1549; Saarhayw 1425; Sarhayow 1453; Sarhyw 1469; Sarhayv 1549. Period spellings s.n. Szárhajú (p. 971): Zarhayow 1403, zarhay 1469.

By far the most common Hungarian byname indicating pale hair color is Sz{o"}ke. In period, the first vowel sound presented the usual orthographic difficulties (because it doesn't occur in Latin), so Kázmér's entry (pp. 1024-1025) shows a wide variety of spellings. The first few will give an idea (and incidentally show just how far back the byname goes -- 13th century is very early for bynames in Hungary!): Nicolao Sceuke 1268/1271, zeuke 1325, Zeuke 1327, Johannes Zeuke 1331, Zewkemortunhaza [placename] 1335/1449. The most common spellings are Zeuke and Zewke. The modern spelling is gray-area (1625), while the closest pre-1600 version is Zöke, dated to 1562 and 1574.

Based on the various spellings seen above of the sounds involved, a late-period Szöszke Anna is not out of the question, though Zözke is more likely (and Zewzke or Zeuzke would garner an 'excellent name' comment from me).

In order to meet the submitter's request for authenticity, we have changed the name to Zeuzke Anna (the form preferred by the submitter).

Elin Karlsdotter. Device. Per bend sinister azure and argent, a bow bendwise sinister drawn with arrow nocked argent and three ermine spots gules.

Precedent says:

The question was raised as to whether or not this is considered slot machine since it has three dissimilar charges in one group. While it is true that it has three charges, when a bow and arrow are in their standard, expected position they are considered one charge, just like a sword in a scabbard is considered one charge. It is only when they are separated, or put into non standard positions for their normal use, such as being crossed in saltire, that they become two separate charges. [Innogen Mac Leod A-04/1999]

Therefore, this device is registerable: since a bow and arrow in this arrangement are considered a single charge, this submission contains only two types of charge in the group.

Gernot vomme Sewe. Name and device. Argent, a triskele and in chief two compass stars azure.

Submitted as Gernot von Meer, the submitter requested authenticity for 14th century German and cares most about not changing the given name and having a byname meaning 'of the sea'. The byname von Meer violates RfS III.1.a Linguistic Consistency by combining High German von with Low German Meer. A wholly Low German form of the byname would use the Low German preposition van, e.g. the bynames vam Mere 1480, 1481, van dem Meer 1484, 1492, van dem Mere 1483, and van deme Mere 1480, 1481 in Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "Low German Names from Hamburg, 1475-1529". Any of these forms could be authentically combined with a Low German given name. However, Gernot is a High German given name, and we have not found any Low German cognates of it. Since the submitter cares most about keeping the given name Gernot unchanged, we need to consider High German bynames meaning 'of the sea'. The usual High German word for 'sea' is see. We found two bynames based on this word: vomme Sewe, dated to 1336 in Bahlow, A Dictionary of German Names, s.n. Seeber, and im Seo, dated to 1381 in Brechenmacher, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Familiennamen, s.n. See. Of these, vomme Sewe is closer in date to the 1344 date of the given name. We have changed the name to Gernot vomme Sewe to meet his request for an authentic 14th C German name.

Guillaine Rosalind de Gaulle. Device. Per pale sable and gules, on a bend sinister doubly cotised argent a fleur-de-lys palewise per pale gules and sable between a fleur-de-lys palewise gules and a fleur-de-lys palewise sable.

Johannes Dene. Name (see RETURNS for device).

Submitted as Johannes Dehn, the submitter requested a byname meaning 'Dane'. Brechenmacher, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Familiennamen, s.n. Dehn(e) indicates that Dehn is a patronymic byname based on a pet form of Degenhart, and that the Middle Low German word for 'Dane, Danish' is dene. He gives examples of Dene 1358, 1475, s.n. Däne, Dähn, and 1488 s.n. Dene; the variant Den is dated to 1540 s.n. Dehn. We have changed the name to Johannes Dene so that it has his desired meaning.

Kaeso Petronius Gallus. Blanket permission to conflict with name (see RETURNS for device).

Kean de Lacy. Device change. Azure, in chief a fox couchant to sinister argent.

The submitter's old device, Per pale sable and argent, a Lacy knot and a bordure per pale argent and azure, is retained as a badge.

Rhiannon wreic Gryffyd. Name.

Submitted as Rhiannon Vreith wreic Gryffyd, the only documentation provided for the byname Vreith was a copy of an email from Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn. However, this email does not provide any period citations for Vreith, it only notes that the nickname Braith "fits very well with the sorts of nicknames we see in Welsh records of the 13-14th century". Lacking citations to back up these assertions, this email is insufficient support to register Vreith. As the submitter allows all changes, we have dropped the problematic element.

The name Rhiannon is SCA compatible; its use is one step from period practice. As ruled on the May 2008 Cover Letter, as of the May 2009 decision meeting we will no longer consider any name element to be SCA compatible.

Sina of Lions Gate. Holding name and device. Vert, a sun Or within a double tressure argent.

Submitted under the name Sina di Andreas Valori, that name was returned on the June 2008 LoAR.

Summits, Principality of the. Order name Gesellschaft von den Güldenen Sternen (see RETURNS for other order names).

Submitted as Die Gesellschaft von den Güldenen Sternen, by precedent from December 2007 (q. Avacal, Principality of) we do not register the definite article in front of the designator. Though the submitters do not allow major changes, they have specifically allowed the definite article die to be dropped. We have done so in order to register the order name.

The submitters requested authenticity for 14th C Upper German. As submitted, the name is authentic for this place and period and we commend them on their research.

This does not conflict with the Barony of Ered Sûl's Order of the Golden Star; the substantive elements Star and Sternen are significantly different in sound and spelling.

Taisiia Volchkova. Name.

There was some question whether Taisiia was a variant of Tasia, a diminutive of Anastasia. If it were, then the submitted name would conflict with Anastasia Volkova per RfS V.1.a.i which says, "Irrespective of differences in sound and appearance, a given name is not significantly different from any of its diminutives when they are used as given names." Fause Losenge provides information on the etymology of Taisiia:

[Taisiia is] the name of a legendary 4th century Egyptian saint. It appears that her name is variously given in the Greek sources as <Thais> (two syllables), <Thaisis>, and <Thaisia>, which last is evidently the source of Russian <Tajsija>.

Since Taisiia is not a diminutive of Anastasia, the two names are compared with respect to their sound and spelling. As these are significantly different, this does not conflict with Anastasia Volkova.

November 2008 LoAR

Alys Lakewood. Name.

Cynthia du Pont. Name and device. Gules, a swan naiant within a bordure argent.

Piers Lakewood. Name.

Regina O'Duncan. Badge. (Fieldless) A frog bendwise sinister argent.

Seán Ó Gallchobhair. Name.

Submitted as Seán Ó Gallchobhar, Gaelic grammar requires that Gallchobhar be put into the genitive case following Ó, e.g, Ó Gallchobhair. We have changed the name to Seán Ó Gallchobhair to correct the grammar.

Seán Ó Gallchobhair. Blanket permission to conflict with name.

Þróndr steinsbrjótr. Name.

Submitted as Þróndr Steinbrjótr, descriptive bynames in Old Norse which are not based on proper nouns or proper adjectives should not be capitalized. Also, precedent says:

Submitted as Ragnarr rifbrjótr, all the documented examples of X-brjótr that were supplied on the LoI and by the commenters have the X element in the genitive case. We have changed the name to Ragnarr rifsbbrjótr to match the documented examples and fix the grammar [LoAR 08/2008, Atlantia-A].

We have changed the name to Þróndr steinsbrjótr in order to register it.

Wealdsmere, Barony of. Order name Order of the Silver Quiver (see PENDS for other order names).

The following items have been returned for further work

October 2008 LoAR

Aleyn Mac Blane. Name.

Conflict with Alan M'Bain; the given names are variants of each other and the bynames are not sufficiently different in sound.

Elizabeth Turner de Carlisle. Badge. (Fieldless) A chevronel couped argent.

Conflict with Thomas Quilliam, Azure, a carpenter's square, point to chief argent. There is one CD for the difference between a fielded and a fieldless design, but nothing for the difference between a carpenter's square in this arrangement and a chevron couped.

Johannes Dene. Device. Per pale azure and sable, a lion and a horse combatant and on a chief argent an eagle sable.

This device is returned for a redraw. The charge in sinister is not recognizable as a horse. Indeed, many commenters at first thought that it was a unicorn, since it appears very similar to many common heraldic depictions of unicorns: the tail is a lion's tail, the hooves appear to be cloven, there are extra tufts of hair in the places one expects them on a unicorn, the head is bent in towards itself in the same way that many depictions of unicorns does. The only piece missing is the single horn on the head. Just as we don't register horses with a unicorn's horn as unicorns, we don't register hornless unicorns as horses.

By our rules, using different types of charge on either side of a per-pale line of division is considered presumptuous, unless "used in contexts that ensure marshalling is not suggested." Precedent says:

[Per pale, a harp and a cross of four lozenges, a chief embattled] The chief was a mark of primary cadency in period (Gayre's Heraldic Cadency, p.153), and it became part of the Stodart system of cadency used today in Scotland. Thus, the addition of a chief to quartered armory would not remove the appearance of marshalling. However, the chief's use as a brisure was never as widespread as the bordure's; where the bordure would be used to cadence all forms of marshalling, the chief would only be used to cadence quartering. In the case of impalement --- which implies a marital coat, not an inherited one --- the addition of the chief is sufficient to remove the appearance of marshalling. (Æthelstan von Ransbergen, September, 1992, pg. 1)

Properly drawn, this device would be acceptable if it has no conflicts when resubmitted.

Kaeso Petronius Gallus. Device. Per pale sable and gules, a goutte d'eau.

This device must be returned for conflict with Brocc of Alderden, (Fieldless) A goutte d'eau. There is a single CD for the difference between a fielded and a fieldless design. While the submitter included a letter of permission that may be from Brocc, the letter is not valid. Section IV.C.3 of the Admin Handbook requires that a letter of permission to conflict include both the Society and legal names of the person granting permission. The first few lines of text on the permission form we received seem to be omitted, and the form does not have this information. The only identification we have for them on the form is the signature. Laurel does not have a signature on file for Brocc of Alderden, so we can not compare the signatures.

Lions Gate, Barony of. Order name Order of the Lion's Pinion.

This was an appeal of the order name Order of the Lions Pinion, which was returned May 2007 because there was no evidence that "lion's shoulder blade" followed the heraldic charge meta-pattern for order names. The appeal indicated that "lion's shoulder blade" was not the meaning originally intended for the order name, and that they desired to use the word pinion in the sense found in the Oxford English Dictionary of "a small cog-wheel the teeth of which engage with those of a larger one; also a spindle, arbor, or axle, having cogs or teeth which engage with the teeth of a wheel."

There are two problems with this appeal. First, the word pinion in this meaning is first documented to 1659; this is outside even our grey area. Second, order names using an animal + an object or attribute must use an object or attribute normally associated with that animal, per precedent:

Northshield, Principality of. Award name Award of the Griffins Sword. By precedent, Order names using the pattern "beast/monster's+attribute" must use an attribute normally associated with that beast or monster:

Order of the Griffin's Flame- A flame is not an attribute associated with a griffin, therefore we need to see evidence that Griffin's Flame is a reasonable name for an order (January 2000)

A sword is not an attribute normally associated with a griffin. [LoAR 01/2005, Northshield-R]

No documentation was provided that cogwheels are attributes normally associated with lions.

Odile Davignon. Device change. Argent, a swan naiant wings elevated and addorsed, a bordure sable.

This is a conflict with a badge for the Principality of Cynagua, Quarterly argent and Or, a swan naiant wings elevated and addorsed within a bordure sable, reblazoned elsewhere in this letter. There is a single CD for the changes to the field.

Summits, Principality of the. Order name Ordo Aerie.

Conflict with Order of the Aries, registered to the Kingdom of Gleann Abhann. The substantive elements are insignificantly different in sound and spelling.

Summits, Principality of the. Order name Order of the Truehearted.

The LoI claimed that truehearted is a synonym for loyalty, and that this name followed the pattern of naming an order after a virtue, such as the orders of Silence and Mercy noted on the August 2005 cover letter. However, truehearted is not a synonym for loyalty, but rather a synonym for loyal. The examples provided of orders named after virtues used the nominal, and not the adjectival, form of the word, which in this case would be true-heartedness. Indeed the Oxford English Dictionary s.v. true-hearted gives us an early grey area example of true-heartedness: "Encrease...loyalty and true-heartednesse in his subiects", and its antonym fainthartednesse, is dated to 1580 in the OED s.v. faint-hearted. We would change the order name to Order of_Trueheartednesse to match the documentation and follow period patterns of order names, but the submitters do not allow major changes. Dropping or adding an element, including articles and prepositions, and significantly changing the sound or appearance of an element are both considered major changes.

Ulfr Hrafnsson. Name.

Conflict with Hrólfr Hrafnssen; the given names are significantly different in spelling, but not in sound.

November 2008 LoAR

Elena de Maisnilwarin. Badge. (Fieldless) A standing balance sable.

Conflict with Edmund the Sentinel, Argent, a standing balance sable bearing on the dexter enhanced pan a hand couped sable holding a morning-star proper and on the sinister lowered pan a heart gules. There's a CD for the field. There is no CD for the slight tilt of the arms, and the hand, morningstar, and heart are all maintained charges.

Jorgen von Stein. Device. Quarterly gules and sable, a lion and in dexter three closed scrolls "palewise" in fess Or.

This is returned because the tincture in quarters 1 and 4 of the form is not gules, it is a dark shade of orange. Opinion at the meeting was that the submitter had fallen victim to an inkjet printout that has faded from the original tinctures.

It is also returned because the position of the scrolls, being somewhere between palewise and bendwise, is not blazonable.

On resubmission, the submitter should draw the scrolls with their central axes either clearly vertical, or aligned parallel to a line connecting the tick marks on the form provided for the purpose of drawing bendwise lines.

LIONS BLOOD ACTIONS

These items will be forwarded to Laurel, and are tentatively scheduled to be decided on in May of 2009.

Aleyn Wykington. Device, Resubmission to Kingdom. Azure, on a plate between three mullets argent a hawk rising sable.

Aron Wyth. Name, New. (See RETURNS for device.)

Christopher Hawkwood. Name, New

Heinrich Wilhelm. Device, Resubmission to Kingdom. Per bend argent and azure, five lozenges in bend bendwise sinister between two eagles counterchanged.

Sina di Andrea Valori. Name, Resubmission to Laurel.

These items are being returned for further work

Aron Wyth. Device, New.Vert, a griffon passant contourny Or, maintainting in its sinister forepaw a quill pen argent all within a bordure Or.

This device is being returned for conflict with Bleddyn Hawk (December of 1996): Per bend sinister gules and azure, an opinicus statant contourny a bordure Or. There is no difference between a griffin and an opinicus as per Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme:

[An opinicus vs. a griffin] The difference between the griffin- variants is too small to be worth a Clear Difference. (Bleddyn Hawk, August, 1993, pg. 15)

There are numerous precedents giving no difference between statant and passant as the only difference is the raising of one front leg. As well there is nothing for a maintained charge. Commenting Heralds suggest using a complex line on the bordure or a bordure Or ermined vert to clear the conflict.

The following submissions received for the February Internal Letter are being returned for administrative reasons.

• Cara Dea da Fortuna. Name & Device.

While the submitter has included a summarization of the sources used to document her name, she has not included photocopies of those articles. The name is returned for lack of documentation. The device is returned for lack of a name to go forward with.

Tristram le fiz Owein. Device.

The submitter included a check sufficient to cover either a name or device submission, but not both. As the name can go forward without a device, but the device cannot go forward without a name, the device is administratively returned.

Carlos Luis Lancero. Badge.

The item is administratively returned, as it appears that the forms have been inadvertantly altered. The tracking area at the bottom of the colored forms has been omitted, but is present on the black and white versions. All copies need to have the tracking boxes across the bottom in order to be processed, and all copies must match.

Gregor von Drachenstein. Device & Badge.

No payment was received for either of these submissions.

Boar Mountain Hold. Name & Device.

These two items are returned for lack of a registered name to go forward under.

There is no Primary Society Name submitted or registered for Nikolaas d'Anvers, who submitted the Household Name and Device for Boar Mountain Hold. Additionally, while an individual may affiliate a badge with a Household Name, there is no provision for the same affiliation involving a device.

Administrative Handbook Section II.B.3: Household Names - The name of a group other than a Society branch or order, such as a household, guild, group fighting unit, etc. Such names may be registered either by an individual, by two individuals jointly, or by a Society branch, and badges may be associated with such names. When a household name is registered by an individual, records dealing with the group's name and badge[s] will be retained under the Primary Society Name (II.B.1: Primary Society Name - The single name under which records of registration are maintained. Kingdoms or principalities may require this name to be used on awards, honors, scrolls, and other formal documents) of the individual registering the item. When a household name is jointly registered, a cross-reference shall also be listed under the Primary Society Name of the other owner. When a household name is registered by a Society branch, these records will be retained under the name of the branch which registered them.

Meilan Hua. Device.

The submitter included a money order sufficient to cover either a name or device submission, but not both. As the name can go forward without a device, but the device cannot go forward without a name, the device is administratively returned.

NEW SUBMISSIONS

1: Aelianora de Wintringham - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• No major changes.
• Sound (unspecified) most important.

The submitter's branch is Dragons Laire.

The submitter will not accept major changes (included is a note saying "accents only"), desires a feminine name and cares most about the sound of her name (unspecified). She expresses no interest in having her name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation a holding name if necessary.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

"Aelianora is dated to shortly after 1300 in a latin document as a feminine name in The Fourth Part of the Institutes of the Laws of England.

"R&W sn Wintringham dates Reynold du Wyntringham to 1300."

The Fourth Part of the Institutes of the Laws of England by Edward Coke, Published by Printed for #. and R. Brooke, 1797, can be found in a Google Book Search. The submitter includes the bibliographical page for the book and a screenshot of page 350 which has the following:

"…Anno 35 E. 3. De concilio fummonit' pro ter' habentibue in Hibernia.

"…Maria comitiffa Norff, Aelianora comitiffa Ormond, Jana la Defpenfer….

"Hereby it appeareth that there were parliaments holden in Ireland before this time, and order taken at this parliament that they fhould be holden every yeare…"

1: Aelianora de Wintringham - New Device

Per chevron gules and sable, a chevron rompu between two pairs of scissors and a needle argent threaded gules.

2: Ælwynn Ælfredesdohter - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• Sound (unspecified) most important.

The submitter's branch is Wealdsmere.

The submitter will accept any changes, desires a feminine name and cares most about the sound of her name (unspecified). She expresses no interest in having her name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name, if necessary.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

"Ælwynn is a variant of Ælfwynn - Ælwynn is a header form in Searle, who dates it to the 10th & 11th c. R&W (sn Alwin) dates the masculine Æluuinus to 1066 and Æluuin to the same - and Ælwine to 1127-34 - all suggest a c. 1066 Ælwynn -

"Ælfredesdohter - Ælfred is a header form in Searle, who dates it to from the 8th c. to the Conquest period - R&W (sn Alfred) dates it as Alured to 1066 -"

3: Aine Ruadh - New Name

• Sound (keep close to an - something - Roah) most important.

The submitter's branch is Vulkanfeldt.

The submitter will accept any changes, doesn't care about the gender of the name and cares most about the sound of the name (keep close to an - something - Roah -). She expresses no interest in having her name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary. She includes a note regarding the holding name: "If so please use Patty of Vulkanfeldt."

<Aine> is found in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan's "Index of Irish Annals" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Feminine/Aine.shtml) in the form <Áine> dated to between 1169 and 1468 with a frequency of 13. In the sources section of the page, it says "Further information about the name Áine, may be found in : OCM (pp. 12-20, s.n. Áine).

<Ruadh> is also found in the "Index of Irish Annals" (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/DescriptiveBynames/Ruadh.shtml) dated to between 1039 and 1446 [by the page provided by the submitter, actual end date is 1597 - Lí Ban] with a frequency of 78. In the sources section of this page [not provided by the submitter but accessed when I checked the functionality of the link provided - Lí Ban] it says: "Further information about the byname Ruadh, may be found in Woulfe (p. 665 s.n. Ruad.).

Photocopies of the article pages are included with this submission.

3: Aine Ruadh - New Device

Or, a hare sejant sinister, a chief potenty gules.

4: Alan ap Neal - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• No major changes.
• Language (Welsh) most important.
• Culture (Welsh, ~14th c.) most important.

The submitter's branch is Aquaterra.

The submitter will not accept major changes, desires a masculine name and cares most about the language and/or culture of his name (Welsh, ~14c.). He expresses no interest in having his name be changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name with necessary.

The following is quoted in the documentation section of the form:

"Al(l)an is a header form in Withycombe, who date Alanus to 1071-5, through to 1284.

"Neal is a header form in Reaney & Wilson - they date Robert Neel to 1208-10."

4: Alan ap Neal - New Device

Argent semy of musical notes sable, a dragon's head couped gules.

5: Algar MacBlane - Resub Name

The submitter's branch is Adiantum.

The submitter's previous submission of Aleyn MacBlane was returned by Laurel on the October 2008 LoAR for conflict with Alan M'Bain.

The submitter will accept any changes, does not express a preference as to the gender of his name or his preferences should his name have to be changed. Nor does he express any interest in having his name be changed to be authentic. He will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

"Algarus is a header form in Black - <Alganus> is dated to c. 11 - it also appears in charters by Alexander I & David I - this is the vernacular form.

"Black (s.n. MacBlain) dates <M'Blayne> & <M'Blane) to 1484."

6: Andrew Crowe - New Device

Argent, a bend gules, overall, a bird displayed sable

The submitter's branch is Adiantum.

The submitter's name was registered in June of 2008.

7: Anna van der Meere - New Name

• Language (sounds like Anna or Jan, means from sea (van der Meer), Low German) most important.

The submitter's branch is Tymberhaven.

The submitter will accept any changes but includes the note: "See below". She doesn't care about the gender of her name and cares most about the language and/or culture of her name (sounds like Anna or Jan, means from sea (van der Meer), Low German). She expresses no interest in having her name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

"All elements are found in Luana de Grood's "Flemish Names from Bruges" www.s-gabriel.org/docs/bruges/.

"Change to make it Low German - but she'd like to keep "mere" in some spelling if plausible & I believe it means sea."

<Anna> is found in the list of dated to between 1400-1550. <van dder Meere> is found in the list of bynames, dated to between 1400 and 1550.

Photocopies of the article are included with this submission.

7: Anna van der Meere - New Device

Argent, a seahorse sable and a chief gules.

8: Arion the Wanderer - Resub Badge

Gules, a trident Or, within an annulet Or.

The submitter's branch is Dragon's Laire.

The submitter's name was registered in July of 2006.

His previous badge submission of (Fieldless) A trident sable was returned by Laurel on the August 2008 LoAR for conflict with the Barony of Marinus, Argent, chaussé per pale azure and vert, a trident sable. Prior to that, his submission of the same blazon was returned by Laurel in September of 2007 for violating the ban on "thin-line" heraldry. His first submission of Argent, a trident sable was returned by Kingdom in April of 2006 for conflict with Yaropolk the Survivor, Argent a trident sable within a hexagon of six wooden staves proper.

9: Brendan ap Llewelyn - New Name

• Submitter has no desire as to gender.

The submitter's branch is Tymberhavene.

The submitter will accept any changes, doesn't care about the gender of his name, and cares most about the spelling of his name. He expresses no interest in having his name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

"Brendan is the Anglicized Irish form of Gaelic Brénainn - the name is the name of 17 saints, according to Ó Corraín and Maguire.

"R&W date (sn Llewellin) to Tudor ap Llywelyn to 1391 - Morgan & Morgan date - William Llewelyn to 1553 & give this as a header form.

"The combination of Anglicized Irish and Welsh is a step from period practice."

9: Brendan ap Llewelyn - New Device

Azure, in bend Two Towers Or.

10: Brynný Loðinsdóttir of Axewater - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.

The submitter's branch is Montengarde.

The submitter will allow any changes, desires a female name and expresses no preference should her name have to be changed. She expresses no interest in having her name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

"Brynný is a constructed name from Old Norse - Geirr Bassi gives Bryn- as a protheme, found in Bryngerðr, Brynhildr, Brynjolhr and -ný as a deuterotheme (p.5) She's really like Bryn(n)a if possible.

"Loðinn is found in Geir Bassi (p. 13) - the patronymic is constructed according to the rules on p. 17.

"Axewater is a constructed English locative name - see back"

The back of the form has the following:

"Ax(e): Ekwall gives:

"Axford.. Axeford 1185, 95, 1200 - maybe fro Ash(æsca)-

"Axholm: Haxeholm c. 1116, Axiholm 1179

"Axe: Axbridge - Axebruge 1085, 1168, Axminster - Axemunster 901

"-water: Ekwall gives several forms w/ -water, including:

"Ashwater: Essewater 1282

"Blackwater: la Blakewatere 1279

"Wosteater, Wassewater 1294

"So, a meaning of ash (trees) + water is documented, and a construction of Axe- probably derived from ash have been documented. This should justify Axewater. If that is not acceptable, she'll accept the documented Essewater."

The device is colored with pencil crayons; the axe is colored grey.

10: Brynný Loðinsdóttir of Axewater - New Device

Quarterly gules and azure, an axe bendwise sinister reversed argent.

11: Catherine of the Rowan Tree - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.

The submitter's branch is Borealis.

This submitter will accept any changes, desires a feminine name and expresses no preference should her name have to be changed. She expresses no interest in having her name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name.

The following is presented as documentation:

"Catherine is found in Reaney and Wilson (sn Townson) dated to 1591.

"Juliana Æstal provides the following documentation:

"<Rountre> is a byname dated to 1301 in R&W (s.n. Rowntree); it means "rowan tree." Until well after our period, the spelling <Rowan> doesn't appear; it's <Roun>.

"Alternately, <Rowan> is a form of the place <Rouen>; it's found in that spelling at http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=80399&strquery=rowan (in Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 20 Part 1 http://www.british-history.ac.uk/source.aspx?pubid=865 by James Gairdner and R.H. Brodie (editors). [Section labeled "R.O." under 11 June. 914. - Lí Ban]

"<Tree> is dated to 1583 in Bardsley (s.n. Tree)

"Bardsley has not a clearly dated <Rowentree> (s.n. Rountree); I doubt it's a period spelling, and R&W share my misgiving.

"That allows <Rowan Tree> with a different meaning or <Rountre> with her desired meaning.

"Now, for <of the>. There are lots of examples with <atte> and a tree name without the word tree. <Bardsley (s.n. Peartree) dates <Emma ate Peretre> to 1273, suggesting <at(t)e> Rountre>, which could also appear as the Frenchified <de la Rountre>. By the 16th c., <Rountree> is a plausible spelling."

11: Catherine of the Rowan Tree - New Device

Purpure, a bend dancetty between two catherines wheels Or

12: Cyriac The Hunter - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• No major changes.

The submitter's branch is Stromgard.

The submitter will not accept major changes and desires a masculine name. He expresses no preference should his name have to be changed, nor does he wish his name changed to be authentic. He will allow the creation of a holding name.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

"Cyriac is the name of a German saint.

"R&W (s.n. Hunter) date <Simon Huntere> to 1220 + <Juliana la Hunter> to 1312."

13: Dominik Magnussen - Resub Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• Sound (unspecified) most important.

The submitter's branch is Vulcanfeldt.

The submitter's previous submissions of the same name and blazon were returned in October of 2007 for administrative reasons.

The submitter will accept any changes, desires a masculine name and cares most about the sound of his name (unspecified). He expresses no interest in having his name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name.

<Dominik> is supported by E.G. Withycombe's The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names, 3rd edition. The entry reads as follows:

"Dominic(k) (m.): (French Dominique, Italian Domenico, Spanish Domingo): Latin dominicus, `of the Lord'. The name may have been given originally to children born on a Sunday (dies dominica). In England it is found as a monk's name in Anglo-Saxon times, but did not come into use as an ordinary Christian name until the 13th C, in honour of St. Dominic (1170-1221), founder of the Order of Preachers. It was used at first as both a m. and a f. name, sometimes appearing as Dominick, sometimes as Dominy; Domenyk occurs in the 15th C. The name was never common in England, and after the Reformation was used almost exclusively by Roman Catholics until quite recently. It is now (1976) in more general use."

<Magnus> is also from Withycombe: "Magnus (m.): Latin magnus `great'. The first person to bear this name was Magnus I, King of Norway and Denmark, died 1047, son of St. Olaf. His father was a great admirer of Charlemagne, `Carolus Magnus', and the child is said to have been baptized by servants who thought Magnus was a proper name. It was subsequently borne by many kings of Norway and Denmark and became a popular name in those countries, whence it was introduced into Shetland, Scotland, and Ireland. Bardsley says that at the time of his writing Magnus was the tenth most frequent name in Shetland, where Magnus, Magnusson, Manson are common surnames. The Gaelic and Irish form of the name is Manus (cf. the surname Macmanus). The occasional occurrence of the name in the South may be connected with the church of St. Magnus the Martyr in London.

"MAGNUS Cur 1200 1207."

The construction of <Magnussen> is supported in "Danish Names, Patronymics, and Surnames" (http://www.ronflynn.com/FREDSBO/names.htm) [URL doesn't function, book has since been published and is no longer linked online. The table of contents is available online at http://www.ronflynn.com/FREDSBO/contents.htm -- Lí Ban] The page has the following: "…all children of a married couple were named for their father. They received a first (given name), but their last name reflected their father's first name…." Also included is a list of typical Danish family names from 1500-1850, including: Peder Jacobsen, Jacob Pedersen and Hans Pedersen. The article continues: "…For each son's last name, it becomes the father's first name… followed by a suffix "sen" meaning "son"…."

13: Dominik Magnussen - Resub Device

Azure, on a chevron Or 3 ships anchors Gules between two eagles Argent combatant wings inverted and addorsed in chief and a griffin Argent

14: Drífa in Rauða - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• No major changes.
• Sound (unspecified) most important.
• Language (Old Norse) most important.

The submitter's branch is Stromgard.

The submitter will not accept major changes, desires a feminine name and cares most about the sound and language/culture of her name (Old Norse). She expresses no interest in having her name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

"Geirr Bassi Haraldsson "Old Norse Name" pg 26 (Rauða)

"Female form: "in" and ending in an "a" pg 9 (Drifa)

"Drífa is found as a feminine name in Geirr Bassi (p. 9) - inn rauð; is found as a masculine byname p. 26. This is the proper feminine form"

14: Drífa in Rauða - New Device

Per pale azure + purpure, an annulet Or fracted to sinister base, overall a spear inverted argent bendwise

15: Dryfinna the Wanderer - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• Meaning (of byname - wanderer/traveler - in English) most important.

The submitter's branch is Borealis.

The submitter will accept any changes, desires a feminine name and cares most about the meaning of her name (of byname - wanderer/ traveler - in English). She expresses no interest in having her name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

"Dryfinna is found once (w/ an accent on the y) in the Landnamabok according to Geirr Bassi - she wants it w/out the accent.

"The Wanderer is intended to be a translation of a byname like farmaðr (sea-farer) or farserkr (travel-shirt) or Engladsfari - Englad traveler - narfari `swift traveller'.

"She'll settle for inn víðf{o,}rli - the Fartravelled - she'd prefer the translation."

15: Dryfinna the Wanderer - New Device

Azure, a cat couchant Or between three dragonflies two and one argent.

16: Eleanor Fairchild - New Badge

Purpure, an ermine head erased and on a bordure argent sixteen golpes.

The submitter's branch is Dragon's Laire.

The submitter's name was registered in December of 2001.

17: Estaban Fereirro - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• No major changes.
• Language (16th century Portuguese) most important.
• Culture (16th century Portuguese) most important.

The submitter's branch is Lions Gate.

The submitter will not accept major changes, desires a masculine name and cares most about the language and/or culture of his name (16th century Portuguese). He expresses no interest in having his name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name.

<Esteban> is found in an article from The Metropolitan Museum website, "Iberian Peninsula, 1600-1800, A.D." (http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/09/eusi/ht09eusi.htm) in the entry for the "first half of the 17th century. It is found as a second given name in <Bartolomé Esteban Murillo> who lived between 1617-1682.

The spelling <Ferreiro> is supported by an entry in "The Internet Surname Database" (http://www.surnamedb.com/surname.aspx?name=Ferreiro) which says the following about the name:

"This ancient surname is of pre Christian and Roman origins. Recorded in over seventy spellings from Farrar, Farrah, Pharro and Pharoah, to Ferrara, Ferrari, Varey, Varrow and Ferrarotti, the name derives from the Latin word "ferrum", through in other countries the later French "ferreor" , and the Middle English "Farrier". All originally had the same basic meaning of an iron worker, although over the centuries more specific meanings have been applied. In Britain for instance the term refers to a maker and fitter of horseshoes, whilst just as Hoover means a vacuum cleaner, Ferrari is in the late 20th century, a term for all that is most desireable in a car. The earliest hereditary surname recordings in the world are to be found in England, that country being the first to accept and record surnames. It is from there that the examples of the early recordings are entered here. These include Hugo Farrour, in the Poll Tax returns for the county of Yorkshire in the year 1379, and in 1517 Doctor Pharor is recorded in the register of the guild of Corpus Christi, in the city of York. One of the very first of all landowners recorded in the new American colony of Virginia, was William Farrar. He held a grant of one hundred acres "Uppon Apmatcke River" on the north side of the James River. This grant is dated 1626. The first recorded spelling of the family name is believed to be that of Thomas le Ferrur, and dated 1275, in the rolls of the county of Yorkshire. This was during the reign of King Edward 1st of England, known as "The Hammer of the Scots", 1272 - 1307. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling."

Also included is a Wikipedia article detailing the life of <António Ferreira>, a Portuguese poet (1528-1569) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ant&oacute;nio_Ferreira).

No documentation was presented supporting the spelling used by the submitter for either element.

Photocopies of both webpages were included with this submission.

17: Estaban Fereirro - New Device

Sable, six swords in anullo points to centre and in base a cresent argent.

18: Fin Ricke Vikingsson - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• Sound (unspecified) most important.
• Meaning (unspecified) most important.

The submitter's branch is Borealis.

The submitter will accept any changes, desires a masculine name and cares most about the meaning and sound of his name (unspecified). He expresses no interest in having his name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

"Fin (R&W) (sn Finn) dates Fin to 1066 & 1143 as a given name.

"Ricke (R&W) (sn Rick) dates Ricke to 1327 as a byname.

"Vikingsson - Vikingr is found in the Landamabok twice as a given name according to Geirr Bassi. This follows the patronymic construction rules on p. 17 of Geirr Bassi.

"The combination of Middle English & Old Norse should be one step from period practice."

18: Fin Ricke Vikingsson - New Device

Sable, a dragon's head erased between three Thor's Hammers, two and one, all within a bordure, or.

19: Gareth Haydon - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• No major changes.
• Sound (unspecified) most important.

The submitter's branch is Montengarde.

The submitter will not accept major changes, desires a masculine name and cares most about the sound (unspecified) of his name. He expresses no interest in having his name changed to be authentic. He will not allow the creation of a holding name.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

"Gareth - in Withycombe, E. "The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names", dated to 1593. Also, mundane first name (see attached driver's license for confirmation)

"Haydon - in Bardsley, Charles, "A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames", dated as that spelling to 1547."

19: Gareth Haydon - New Device

Sable, an arrow, within a bordure argent

20: Georgette de Montmorency - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.

The submitter's branch is Dragon's Mist.

The submitter will accept any changes and desires a feminine name. She expresses no preference should her name have to be changed nor does she express any interest in having her name changed to be authentic. She will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

"Georgette de Montenay was the author of Emblemes ou devises chestiennes c. 1567/71 - see attached.

"Montmorency is the byname of Anne de Montemorency died 1567 - see attached"

The book by Georgette de Montenay is found on a webpage entitled "French Emblems at Glasgow" (http://www.emblems.arts.gla.ac.uk/french/books.php?id=FMOa). On the page are details of the book, its publication history, and a secondary bibliography, as well as a portrait of Gerogette de Montenay.

<Montmorency> is supported by a Wikipedia page: "Anne de Montmorency" (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_de_Montmorency), "…duc do Montmorency, KG (March 15, 1493-November 15, 1567), was French soldier, statesman and diplomat. He became Marshal of France and Constable of France." The page details his early life and the reign of Francis I.

Photocopies of the pages are included with this submission.

20: Georgette de Montmorency - New Device

Per chevron gules and vert on a chevron Or between two oak leaves chevronwise Or and an aileron argent, three acorns proper.

21: Gwenlliana Clutterbooke - New Badge

(Fieldless) A closed book palewise, spine to dexter gules, clasped and garnished Or.

The submitter's branch is Dragon's Mist.

The submitter's name was registered in July of 2007.

22: Gwenlliana Clutterbooke - New Badge

(Fieldless) A turtle gules.

The submitter's branch is Dragon's Mist.

The submitter's name was registered in July of 2007.

23: Hua Meilan - New Name

The submitter's branch is Borealis.

The submitter will accept any changes and expresses no preference as to gender or if her name should have to be changed. She expresses no interest in having her name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary.

The submitter provides the following:

"Name Submission and Defense of HUA MEILAN

"Name of Submitter: [redacted]

"Location: Borealis

"Area of Origin: China

"Era: Late 1200's; Song Dynasty

"Defense as a Construction Name

"Name is based off of Hu{a-} Mùlán, legendary woman fighter who lived and fought in the Emperor's army around the 5th century disguised as a man in place of her ailing father (3,4). In 1998, Disney released an animated movie entitled Mulan very loosely based on the story (8). Roughly translated MuLan would refer to a species of "magnolia" blossom indigenous to China (4). The word "mu" describes a "deciduous magnolia" while "lam" is used to figuratively describe a sense of fragrant [sic], elegance and beauty in relation to flowers particularly orchids. Combined the name Mulan is translated into a "fragrant magnolia". Meilan bears striking similarities to this name in that "mei" describes "beauty" while "lan" describes the same amount of beauty referred to an orchid. Since both names refer implicitly to the nature of flowers, particularly that of the orchid, it would not be too much of an extrapolation to suggest that the name Meilan could have existed in period with Mulan in the 12th century.

"As further evidence to the name Meilan as being in existence in the 12th century please refer to the story of The Jade Goddess (5,7). The main character in the story is an aged nun named Meilan who speaks about her life as the daughter of a powerful Commissioner Chang in the province of Kaifeng and her forbidden love affair with a sculptor and how her father's armies forced the lovers apart. In their retreat her husband enters hiding while Meilan becomes a Buddhist nun and lives out the rest of her days in cloister (9,10). This story should prove that the name Milan was in documented existence by the 12th century and could be used as an SCA compatible name because it is portrayed in a story featuring ordinary people. In addition the story also references Kaifeng as the setting of the story, in period this area would have been where modern day Kaifeng would have been, located in the Hennan province on the southern bank of the Yangtze which would have been a portion of the Song Empire (1).

"The last name Hua is the same last name belonging to Mulan. Translated the word Hua refers to flowers and blossoms, which was the word typically used in ancient times (3).

"In combination of the 3 words Hua Mulan her name would have been "Blossom" "fragrant Magnolia", conversely Hua Meilan would be translated into "Blossom" "Beautiful Orchid". Since both names bear heavy references toward flowers, particularly those belonging to the orchid family, it would be reasonable that the name Hua Meilan could have existed in the 12th century.

"When written stylistically in traditional Chinese; the name Hua Mulan would be written as 花木¬蘭. Hua Meilan on the other hand would appear as 花美兰 (3.5.6).

"Works Cited

"1. Embree, A. (ed.). (1998). Encyclopaedia of Asian History (Volume 3). New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons.

"2. Jones, D. (1997). China. Women warriors: A history. Dulles, VI: Brassey's. (p. 24)

"3. Various authors. (1945). Hua. Mathews' Chinese-English dictionary (revised American ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (p.328)

"4. Various authors. (1945). Mu. Mathews' Chinese-English dictionary (revised American ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (p.643-644).

"5. Various authors. (1945). Mei. Mathews' Chinese-English dictionary (revised American ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (p. 619).

"6. Various authors. (1945). Lan. Mathews' Chinese-English dictionary (revised American ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (p. 557).

"7. Sternberg, R. (2006). New psychology of love. Binghamton, NY: Yale University.

"8. Wikipeida author. Retrieved from Hua Mulan on Wikipedia on November 24, 2008 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hua_Mulan.

"9. Yutang, L. (1952). The jade goddess. Famous Chinese short stories. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. (p.67).

"10. Yutang, L. (1952). The jade goddess. Famous Chinese short stories. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. (p. 71).

"Appendix

"Chinese Naming Schemes:

"Naming schemes are done last name before the first. Children are not named immediately after birth but rather 1 month afterwards in a ceremony known as the "one month" ceremony and they are named by a diviner who takes into account astrology and numerology to determine the number of "brush strokes" that will be most suitable for the new baby. This would not make it uncommon for children to have "thematic" names to match their surname.

"About Lin Yutang

"Lin Yutang (October 10 1895-March 26, 1976) was a Chinese writer and inventor. His informal but polished style in both Chinese and English made him one of the most influential writers of his generation, and his compilations and translations of classic Chinese texts into English were bestsellers in the West.

"Variations of the Jade Goddess

"Although the two references for the Jade Goddess cites two different possible endings, one ends with Meilan being buried alive in her father's garden and the second ends with her spending her days as a nun. Both stories share the same element in that they both featured a teenage girl form the province of Keifeng having a forbidden affair with a stone carver and the story is wet in the 12th century. Both versions feature realistic characters and probable endings, only notable difference is one version ends on happier note."

Photocopies of all print volumes are included with this submission. Photocopies of the Wikipedia page were not included.

24: Jacopo Battista de Luca - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• No changes.
• Sound (unspecified) most important.

The submitter's branch is Adiantum.

The submitter will not accept major or minor changes to his name, desires a masculine name and cares most about the sound of his name. He expresses no interest in having his name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

"All elements are found in Yehoshua ben Hain ha Yerushalm's "A Sample of Jewish Names in Milan, 1540-1579" (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/Jewish/milan_names.html).

"All are also found w/ <Iacopo> instead of <Jacopo> in the 1427 catasto - as are double given names - see www.s-gabriel.org/names/juliana/condado/ for examples."

25: Jacopo Battista de Luca - New Badge

Argent, in pall a crescent between a crescent bendwise sinister, a crescent bendwise and a goutte inverted sable.

The submitter's branch is Adiantum.

The submitter's name may be found above on this letter.

26: Kirk Einarsson - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.

The submitter's branch is Montengarde.

The submitter will accept any changes and desires a masculine name. He expresses no preference should his name have to be changed and expresses no interest in having his name changed to be authentic. He will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary.

Kirk is the submitter's legal name.

Einarr is found 28 times in the Landmabok - according to Geirr Bassi - the patronymic is formed according to the rules on p. 17.

A photocopy of the submitter's drivers license is included with this submission.

The device is colored with pencil crayon; the cross is colored a light grey.

26: Kirk Einarsson - New Device

Quarterly gules and azure, a cross argent charged with five ermine spots sable.

27: Kseniia Smol'nianina - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• Meaning ("from Smolensk") most important.

The submitter's branch is Three Mountains.

The submitter will accept any changes, desires a feminine name and cares most about the meaning of her name (of the byname - "from Smokensk"). She expresses no interest in having her name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the forms:

"Kseniia is dated to 1279 in Paul Wickenden of Thanet's "Russian Names Database" (http://heraldry.sca.org/heraldry/paul) - as a feminine given name.

"Smol'nianin is dated to 1266-91 as a masculine byname - in the same article.

"We believe this to be the properly constructed feminine form."

27: Kseniia Smol'nianina - New Device

Gules, on a bend sinister between six mullets of four points elongated to base Or a scarpe gules.

28: Laurence of Damascus - New Device

Per pale Gules and Argent, An Escallop Counterchanged.

The submitter's branch is Three Mountains.

The submitter's name was registered in August of 2002.

29: Leonidas Balsamon - New Name

The submitter's branch is Vulkanfeldt.

The submitter will accept any changes and expresses no preference for gender of the name or preferences should his name have to be changed. He expresses no interest in having his name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary.

Leonidas (Λεωνίδας) is found 102 times in the Lexicon of Greek Personal Names (http://www.lgpn.ox.ac.uk/database/lgpn.php (search for `Starts with' Lewn in Symbol)

Catholic Encyclopedia, s.n. St. Leonidas (http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09179a.htm) Saint Leonidas, Bishop of Athens, lived c. 6th century.

Balsamon is dated as a family name to 1190 in Bardas Xiphes' Personal Names of the Aristocracy in the Roman Empire During the Later Byzantine Era (http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/byzantine/introduction.html).

29: Leonidas Balsamon - New Device

Per pale azure and Or, two lions combatant and a base counterchanged.

30: Marius Parthus - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• Meaning (byname meaning The Parthian) most important.

The submitter's branch is Glyn Dwfn.

The submitter will accept any changes, desires a masculine name and cares most about the meaning of his name (byname meaning The Parthian). He expresses no interest in having his name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary.

Marius - Meradudd Cethin "Names and Naming Practices of Regal and Republican Rome" - http://heraldry.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/roman - gives Marius as a noun - Morlet vol 2 gives this as a given names to 593 a. 636, a. 855 & a. 950.

¬Parthus - Lewis & Short (s.n. Parthi) give Parthus as a form meaning "of belonging to the Parthian; Parthian) (http://artfl.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.7:677.lewshort).

Photocopies of the Perseus Digital Library page are included with this submission.

30: Marius Parthus - New Device

Sable, a lightning bolt and overall eight triangles in annulo argent

31: Matillis atte Hethe - Resub Device

Bendy argent and purpure, on a mount vert a tower azure.

The submitter's branch is Wyewood.

The submitter's name was registered in January of 2007.

The submitter's previous device submission of Argent, three bendlets purpure, overall a tower azure was returned by Kingdom in October of 2006 for the excessive enhancement of the bendlets.

32: Oswulf Silverloc - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• Sound (unspecified) most important.

The submitter's branch is Wealdsmere.

The submitter will accept any changes, desires a masculine name and cares most about the sound of his name. He expresses no interest in having his name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary.

Oswulf if a header form in Searle - it is dated to c.1055 and c. 1060.

Silverloc is dated to 1268 in R&W sn Silverlock.

The combination of Middle and Old English is one step from period practice.

Both sources are on the no-photocopy list.

33: Rachel Roz - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• Meaning (Roz = Rose) most important.

The submitter's branch is Tymberhavene.

The submitter will accept any changes, desires a feminine name and cares most about the meaning of her name (Roz = Rose). She expresses no interest in having her name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

"Rachel is a biblical name, about which Withycombe says "a common name among the Jews, but not used as a Christian name in England until after the Reformation".

"The submitter would like Roz, but will settle for Ros - R&W sn Ross date <Serlo de Ros> to 1086 and <Philip de Roos> to 1246."

34: Richenda du Jardin - New Name Change

Old Item: Richenda de Jardin, to be released.

• No changes.

The submitter's branch is Wealdsmere.

The submitter's current name of Richenda de Jardin was registered in March of 1998. She wishes her old name released upon registration of the change.

The submitter will not accept any changes. She expresses no preference for gender and is not interested in having her name changed to be authentic. She will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

"Richenda is grandfathered to the submitter - it's an Occitan name.

"The 1292 Paris census (folio 30c, p. 69, column 2) gives Thomasse, du Jardin - we seem to have missed the title page in our copy but its Gerands 1837 edition.

"jdl says that she believes du Jardin is also found in Morlet Picardie."

Photocopies of the census pages are included with this submission.

35: Richenda du Jardin - New Household Name

Chastel Salon

The submitters' branch is Wealdsmere.

The submitter's currently registered name of Richenda de Jardin was registered in March of 1998. Her name change to Richenda du Jardin may be found above on this letter.

This household name is to be held jointly with Juliana de Luna.

The submitters will accept any changes. No preference is given for gender or should the name have to be changed. They express no interest in having the name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name.

The following is presented for documentation:

"D&R

"Use of element <Salon>

"s.n. Saales, under Salon <Salon> 1178, <villa Salone> IXe s.

"s.n. Salerm, under Selonnet, <Salon> 1222, <Salonet> CVIe. s.

"Use of forms of <chastel> with another placename (in vernacular)

"s.n. Château <Chastel Marlac> 1185, <Chasteaul Chignon> 1372, <Chastel Sallin> 1346, <Chastelbrehain> 1505

"This supports the idea that a castle could have been known as <Chastel Salon>. This pattern (house or castle names) has been ruled appropriate for household names, upheld as recently as 4/08."

36: Richenda du Jardin - New Badge

(Fieldless) A furison inverted argent.

This submission is to be associated with Chastel Salon

The submitter's branch is Wealdsmere.

The submitter's current name of Richena de Jardin was registered in March of 1998. Her name change to Richenda du Jardin may be found above on this letter.

This badge is intended to be associated with Chastel Salon and is to be held jointly with Juliana de Luna.

37: Roric Mareschal - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.

The submitter's branch is Dragon's Mist.

The submitter will accept any changes, desires a masculine name and cares most about the spelling of his name (Roic with a `c'). He expresses no interest in having his name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary.

Roricus is dated to a.863 and about 1113 (and 3 times between) in Morlet. Roric is a likely vernacular.

Mareschal - R&W (sn Marshall) date Goisridus Mareschal 1084 and Mascherell to 1130 - this seems a reasonable interpolation.

37: Roric Mareschal - New Device

Or, a chevron embattled between two fleurs-de-lis and a dragon rampant sable.

38: Rose Atherton - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• No major changes.
• Sound (roz œɵərtəɴ) most important.
• Language (English) most important.
• Culture (English) most important.

The submitter's branch is Adiantum.

The submitter will not accept major changes, desires a feminine name and cares most about the sound (roz œɵərtəɴ) and the language/culture of her name (English). She expresses no interest in having her name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary.

Rose is a header form in R&W - Thomas filius Rose is dated to 1270 and Rosa Weuere to 1327.

Atherton is a header form in R&W - William de Atherton is dated to 1384.

39: Saraswati Amman - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• No major changes.
• Client requests authenticity for 16th century India, Hindu.
• Language (16th century India) most important.
• Culture (Hindu) most important.

The submitter's branch is Dragon's Mist.

The submitter will not accept major changes, desires a feminine name and cares most about the language/culture of her name (16th century India, Hindu). Though she has not checked either box, the submitter has filled in the details space for authenticity with "sixteenth century India, Hindu." She will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary.

The following is presented as documentation for this name:

"I am submitting the name Saraswati Amman, a sixteenth century Hindu name. Since period Indian names can be difficult to document, I have put together a variety of sources to support the use of the names Saraswati and Ammon in period.

"Amman: Throughout period, it was common to attach a second name to a woman's first name. One common suffix was Amma/Ammon. According to A Telugu-English Dictionary, "Amma" means: "amma I. n. suffix 1 denoting the female sex, e.g., patulamma school mistress. 2 added to proper names as a mark of respect, e.g., raamamma Ramamma. II. n. 1 mother. 2 woman, lady."

"In the article "Women's Names from (Mostly) 16th Century Inscriptions at Tirupati (India)," Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn (Heather Rose Jones) lists female names from Epigraphical Glossary on Inscriptions - Vol. VI Part II (Sri Garib Dass Oriental Series No. 23) ed. by V. Vijayaraghavacharya (Delhi, India: Sri Satguru Publications, 1984). "Amman" appears at least 16 times. Thse names date from the mid-sixteenth century.

"Ursual Georges' article "17th and 18th Century Mughal Feminine Names" shows how widespread the two name practice was. The Tirupati women mentioned above were Hindu, but even the Muslim Mughal women were named with the first name plus suffix system: Aurangabadi Begum, Nur Bai.

"Saraswati: Saraswati is the Hindu goddess of learning. The name itself does not appear in period sources, but elements of it do (Saras), as do the names of other Hindu gods and goddesses.

"The "Women's Names from (Mostly) 16th Century Inscriptions at Tirupati (India)," article lists several deity names: Lakshmi (goddess), Krishna (god), and Hanumasa (perhaps a reference to Hanuman); several names also include the element Deva or Devi, which simply means "goddess."

"The article "Medieval Tamil Names," which uses Leslie Orr's Donors, Devotees, and Daughters of God: Temple Women in Medieval Tamilnadu as a source also includes the deity name Kali (goddess).

"Mistress Eleanor Catlyng has put together a concordance of Chola-era names, taken from the book A Condordance of the Names in the C{o-}ḻa Inscriptions. The deity names include: Kali (goddess), Ramani (god), Narayani (god [Vishnu]).

"A document put together by Lisa Darcy, "Rajput Women's Names" includes period names from a variety of sources. Some of the deity names include: Devamati (deva = generic word for goddess), Durgavatibai (Durga is a goddess), Gangabai/Gangadeji/Gangajumvar (goddess), Indrabai/Indradeji/Indrakumvar (god), Padma Cevi (lotus + goddess), Sitabai (goddess). These names are also in two-parts, like the Tirupati names.

"This list also includes: Saraskumvar. This is very similar to Saraswati. Saras (water) + kumvar (prince); Saras (water) + wati (with/quality). Saras as an element, then, was in use in period.

Conclusion: The use of two-part female names can be seen throughout period, both chronologically and geographically. Further, this naming system appears in a variety of languages. Finally, deity names also occur in a variety of times and places.

"Works Cited

""Amma." Gwynn, J.P.L. A Telegu-English Dictionary. Jan 2006. 29 Sep 2008. http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/search3advanced?dbname=gwynn&query=Amma&matchtype=exact&display=uft8

"Catlyng, Eleanor. "Chola Names." 2008. 29 Sep 2008. (http://spreadsheets.google.com/pub?key=pHsnORy2VBh-zsdR2vX3VLA&gid=12>

"Darcy, Lisa. "Rajput Women's Names." 2004. [accessed through the SCA_India Yahoo! Group 29 Sep 2008]

"Georges, Ursula. "17th and 18th Century Mughal Women's Names." 2002. 29 Sep 2008. http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/ursula/mughalwomen.html

"---------. "Medieval Tamil Names." Sep 2004. 29 Sep 2008. http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/ursula/tamil/

"Glasvryn, Tangwystyl verch Morgant. "Women's Names from (Mostly) 16th Century Inscriptiosn at Tirupati (India)." 1999. 29 Sep 2008. http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystyl/india/tirupati_f.html"

Photocopies of all sources except for A Telegu-English Dictionary are included with this submission.

39: Saraswati Amman - New Device

Per pale azure and Or a beaver rampant between three lotus blossoms in profile all counterchanged

40: Soelig Sweteglee - New Name

• Submitter has no desire as to gender.
• Sound (unspecified) most important.

The submitter's branch is Aquaterra.

The submitter will accept any changes (with the note see below), doesn't care about the gender of her name and cares most about the sound of her name. She expresses no interest in having her name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

"Soelig is hypothesized to be an Old English given name - R&W sn Sealey hypothesizes this word as the origin of the byname Sely. This is also used as a woman's name, documented to 1221 as Sely and 1219 as Sela - if a form of this name ending (with two syllables) in a g cannot be documented please return this instead of changing to Sely or Sela

"Sweteglee is a header spelling in Jasjo "Middle English Nicknames""

Also included is an email from Gwen:

"… I have asked, poked, prodded, and cajoled, and no one can give me a concrete answer either way on the acceptability of your name. The overriding sentiment that has been expressed is that we should just go on ahead and submit it, and let the other Heralds find documentation that says it ain't so if it ain't. So… here's the documentat I have:

"R&W (sn Sealey) sates: "OE Soelig (saelig?) `happy, blessed', whence modern silly, often misunderstood in the phrase `Silly Suffolk'. This was also used as a woman's name: Sela 1219 AssL, Sely filia Nicholai 1221 AssWo, Sley Percy 1327 SRSo."

"Sweteglee is found as a header spelling in Jonsjo's `Middle English Nicknames', literally meaning `sweet, pleasant entertainment, music or joy' and probably used for a minstrel (from OE swete + gleo)…."

40: Soelig Sweteglee - New Device

Vert a celtic harp between two musical notes bendwise argent

41: Trahaearn ap Gruffudd - New Device

Or, a sea-dragon erect gules, a base embattled azure.

The submitter's branch is Tymberhavene.

The submitter's name was registered in April of 2001.

42: Tristram le fiz Owein - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• No major changes.
• Meaning (Tristram son of Owein) most important.

The submitter's branch is Seagirt.

The submitter will not accept major changes to his name, desires a masculine name and cares most about the meaning of his name (Tristram son of Owein). He expresses no interest in having his name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name.

<Tristram> is supported by Academy of Saint Gabriel Report #2738, the relevant portions of which are quoted below:

"...In a previous report that discussed <Tristan> and the standard English form of the name, <Tristram>…. We have found no evidence that the name was used in Welsh. However, by the 16th century, many English names were adopted by the Welsh; so it is not impossible that <Tristram> could have been used by a Welshman late in our period."

<le fiz> is supported by Academy of Saint Gabriel Report #3187, the relevant portion of which is quoted below:

"During your period [around the time of the Norman Conquest], we'd expect a man named <Turstin> who was the son of a man named <Osbern> would have been known as <Turstin le fiz Osbern> `Turstin the son of Osbern' in Old French. The spelling <Fitz> and the dropping of the article <le> occurred primarily after your period…"

<Owein> is supported by Academy of Saint Gabriel Report #2171, the relevant portion of which is quoted below:

"You asked for help creating an authentic 13th century Welsh masculine name, with <Owen> as your first name…. Your choice of given name is excellent for your period. We find it spelled as <Owen> 1221, <Oein> or <Owein> 1221, <Owain> 1242, and <Oweyn> or <Ewayn> 1286-9…."

Photocopies of all three reports are included with this submission.

43: Trotula da Ravenna - New Name

The submitter's branch is Three Mountains.

The submitter will accept any changes, doesn't care about the gender of her name and cares most about the spelling of her name (prefers these spellings of both elements). She expresses no interest in having her name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name.

<Trotula> is the given name of an 11th/12th c. physician. While some scholars say she did not exist, the name should be allowable as a literary name if she did not actually exist. The Brooklyn Museum: Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Place Setting: Trotula at http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/eascfa/dinner_party/place_settings/trotula.php has the following information on Trotula:

"Trotula of Salerno (also known as Trotula of Ruggerio) was an eleventh-century Italian doctor, who is frequently regarded as the world's first gynecologist. Her many achievements in the male-dominated specialty of gynecology both educated her contemporaries and advanced progressive ideas about women's health care.

"Trotula served as a physician and professor at the Medical School in Salerno, Italy, the first medical school in the world. Her husband and sons were also doctors at the school, which was one of the only schools in Europe to instruct and employ both men and women. Trotula distinguished her work with a specific focus on the medical needs of women. Attentive to women's diseases and overall health, she became highly skilled at diagnosing uniquely female medical issues ranging from pregnancy-related complications to those related to female hygiene. She advocated for the use of opiates during labor, opposing the Christian belief of the time that women should experience a maximum of suffering during childbirth as punishment for Eve's sin. She also revolutionized the medical field by suggesting that men could also be infertile.

"Trotula's work was so influential that it set the course for the practice of women's medicine for centuries. Long after her death, doctors throughout the medieval world relied on her medical reference work to treat female patients. Trotula Major on Gynecology, also known as Passionibus Mulierum Curandorum (The Diseases of Women), was a sixty-three chapter book first published in Latin in the 12th century; it is still regarded as the definitive sourcebook for pre-modern medical practices. The only book written to educate male doctors about the female body, it included information about menstruation and childbirth in addition to general medical advice. This text had a great impact on the practice of medicine during the pre-modern period.

"During the Renaissance, some scholars began to express doubt that Trotula was a woman, and others believed she was an entirely fictional character. It was supposed that a male physician Trottus had written the complex material in Trotula Major, and that Trotula was a midwife. Though scholars today believe she did, in fact, exist, there is continued research into whether Trotula's writings are solely hers or compiled from many authors."

<Ravenna> - This placename appears as Rauvenna in Maridonna Benvenuti's "Mercator's Place Names of Italy in 1554" http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/maridonna/mercator/north.html.

Photocopies of both sources are included with this submission.

44: William of Caen Tire - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.

The submitter's branch is Borealis.

The submitter will accept any changes and desires a masculine name. He expresses no preference should his name have to be changed and expresses no interest in having his name changed to be authentic. He will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary.

Juliana Æstal provided the submitter with the following information:

"<William> is a header form in Black, <Johannes filius Wilelmi> is dated to 1317 (s.n. Williamson). The spelling <Williamson> in the latter is found by 1480 and 1527.

"<Kintyre> is a Scots placename; it's dated (as a pursuivant's title) in that spelling to 1529 (http://www.medievalscotland.org/kmo/HeraldicTitles/dictionary.shtml#Kintyre%20Pursuivant).

"<Caen Tire> is an error, as far as I can tell; widipedia gives the modern Scots Gaelic form of the place as <Cinn Tire>, and the first 150 google hits for the string <Caen Tire> are about the French town Caen.

"The phrase <of Cinn Tire> won't work; it combines English and Gaelic. What'd [sic] I'd suggest is changing it to <of Kintyre>, but getting the CoA (that'd be Mari and Effrick) to give him the right Gaelic form; that form will be the genitive (possessive) form of <Cinn Tire> (or whatever the period spelling of the place is)."

Photocopies of the article are included with this submission.

44: William of Caen Tire - New Device

Or, on a cross rayonny Azure a hawks head erased Or

45: Wynn the Waywarde - New Name

• No major changes.
• Sound (unspecified) most important.

The submitter's branch is Porte de l'Eau.

The submitter will not accept major changes, doesn't care about the gender and cares most about the sound and spelling of her name. She expresses no interest having her name changed to be authentic. She will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

"Persona is roughly 1300's, Wales-English border, a novitiate nun of the Citercian order, and is wayward (traveling before taking her vows)

"Applicant would prefer the spelling `Wynn,' or, secondarily, `Wyn' or `Wynne'

"Applicant would prefer the surname spelling `the Waywarde,' or secondarily `the Weyward'"

Also included with this submission are the following two pages:

Page 1:

"WYNN

"Wynn

"Gender: Masclunie, Usage: Welsh

"Pronounced: WIN; Derived from Welsh gwyn meaning "blessed, white, fair".

"pre 16-c variations: Gwinnett, Gwyn, Gwynett, Bwynn, Gwynne, Gwyyns, Wyn, Wynn, Wynne

"[Gwyn] Win, Wyn, Gwin, Gwyn (masculine)

"http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/welsh16.html

"[Gwenne] Gwen, Wen (feminine)

"http://heraldry.sca.org/laurel/names/welshfem16/given.html

"[Gwyn] - Win, Wyn Gwin, Gwyn (masculine)

"[Gwen] - Wen (feminine)

"Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn - http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystyl/welsh13.html

"Wulf- Wyn-

"The Pre-conquest Personal Names of Domesday Book - Olof von Feilitzen, pg 259

"http://books.google.com/books?lr=&id=mMkLAAAAYAAJ&g=wyn&pgis=1#search

"(Less reliable sources)

"[Gynne] - derived from Welsh gwyn "white" or "fair hair" or "fair complexion"; it was first used as a personal name pre 16-c. Gwinnett, Gwyn, Gwynett, Gwynn, Gwynne, Gwyyns, Wyn, Wynn, Wynne.

"[Wynne] - mutated version of Welsh name Gwynne. Wynn.

"http://www.amlwchhistory.co.uk/data/welshsurnamemeanings.htm

"Morgan & Morgan (p. 117 has examples of "Gwynne" in the 16th c. and "Wynne" in the early 17th c., although these are all of bynames and/or surnames. However the given name was still in use then and should have been pronounced (and hence, spelled) in similar ways.

"As the proposed byname `the Wayward' does not indicate gender, the submitter hopes that `wynn' as a male name is suitable, as per . WVS [21] [LoAR 21 Jul 80], p. 7: "It is allowed, although discouraged, for a lady to use a man's given name, and vice versa. The applicant must note on the information sheet the fact that they know that the name is of the opposite gender and that they do desire it that way. Otherwise it will be corrected to the proper gender.""

Page 2:

"THE WAYWARDE

"Dictionary entry

"http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/wayward

"c. 1380 aphetic shortening of aweiward "turned away," from away + -ward.

"Weiward

"also: wayward, weiwerd, weywarde, wayward, weywerd

"[Shortened from of awei-ward adv. & pred.adj.; also cp. wei n.(1).]

" http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/m/mec/med-idx?type=id&id=MED52064&egs=all&egdisplay=open

"(a) Disposed to go counter to what is right, inclined to behave wickedly or perversely; -- also used of the eye;

"(b) characterized by perversity or wickedness; ~ entente, a predisposition to perversity, perversity of attitude;

"(c) of judgment: perverted, unjust.

"*(a) (c1384) WBible(1) (Dc 369(2)) Mat.6.23: 3if thyn eiȝn be wayward, al thi body shal be derkful. (1395) Wycl.37 Concl.(Tit D.1) 6: Perlatis or curatis that prechen not duli the gospel but geuen opinli ensaumple of perdicioun to the puple … these weiward prelatis … withdrawen the seed of Goddis word and of good ensaumple fro the puple.a1427 Susan.(Hnt HM 114) 55: Her wittys were wayward, þei wriþyn away … fro his sechyng.?c1430(c1400) Wycl.Priesthood (Corp-C 296) 174: Prestis weiward of lif turnen vpsodoun cristis techynge.?c1450(?a1400) Wycl.Clergy HP (Lamb 551) 376: Þu art … wo þhat euer crist was so yuel avised to say … þes wordis … and woldist liȝtly … do þis worde … owte of þe gospelle … as waiwerd clerkis wolden in seynt Austyns time haue done.a1500 Apoc.(2) (Magd-C F.4.5) 66/3: Weywarde [Hrl 171: it bitokeneþ þat alle men … schulen … conforme hem to Antecrist as now þei conformen hem to wickide prelatis].a1500 Conq.Irel.(Rwl B.490) 143/37: In the … Pepil So weyward and So vnredy and So mych harme doynge … he had lewer his rych clothis to were than wepyn to berre.

"*(b) a1425(a1415) Wycl.Lantern (Hrl 2324) 18/17: Anticrist … transposiþ vertues in to vicis & vicis in to vertues … And for þis weywarde entent, God dispisiþ anticrist.

"(1448) Shillingford 52: They had seyd that yf eny of the Maiers officers entred … the tenant sholde breke his hed, Wherapon the Mayer made right grete wayward longage to them.a1500 St. Kath.(4) (Cmb Ff.2.38) 329: He made iiii whylys thoo, Eche contrary fro odur can goo; Hyt [device of torture] was made full weywarde, Full of crokys of stele harde.1530(c1450) Mirror Our Lady (Fawkes) 44: Thys malycyous serpent … An other he sturreth to make som weywarde token or to do some thynge comberously where thrughe other ar taryed in theyre myndes and troubeled.

"*(c) (c1384) WBible(1) (Dc 369(2)) Hab.1.4: Weywerd dom [L iudicium perversum] shal go out.

"For phraseology, `the Wayward':

"R&W s.n. Gerish. <le Gerische> and <Girisshe> listed there mean "changeful, wild, wayward." Listed there as a <le X> form, justifying "le Wayward" or "the Wayward."

No photocopies of the sources were included with this submission.

45: Wynn the Waywarde - New Device

Sable, a triple pile in bend sinister Vert fimbriated Argent.

46: Ymanya Blackeye - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• Sound (unspecified) most important.

The submitter's branch is Borealis.

The submitter will accept any changes, desires a feminine name and cares most about the sound of her name. She expresses no interest in having her name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name.

<Ymanya>: 1273 English. Taken from "The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names" by E.G. Withycombe, (Oxford University Press, 1985) pg. 166

<Blackeye>: 1275 English. Taken from "Oxford Dictionary of English Surnames" by Reany & Wilson, (Oxford University Press, 2005) pg. 47.

46: Ymanya Blackeye - New Device

Azure, vetu ploye argent, a peacock in its splendor argent, in chief two bezants fimbriated azure

An Tir OSCAR counts: 32 New Names, 1 New Name Change, 1 New Household Name, 26 New Devices, 5 New Badges. This gives 65 new items. Resub counts: 2 Resub Names, 2 Resub Devices, 1 Resub Badge. This is a total of 5 resubmissions on this letter, for a total of 70 actions.

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