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An Tir IL dated 2009-01-03 (Jump to Submissions)

Unto Gwenlian Black Lion, Caitrina Lions Blood and the esteemed members of the An Tir College of Heralds to whom this missive comes, Lí Ban ingen Echtigeirn, Boar Herald, sends greetings and felicitations.

COMMENTARY ON THIS LETTER IS DUE ON THE 10TH OF FEBRUARY, 2009.

The following Lions Blood meetings will be held on at 1:00pm at Caitrina Lions Blood's home (3174 Sechelt Dr., Coquitlam, BC).

December meeting - Sunday, January 25, 2009

January meeting - Sunday, February 15, 2009

February meeting - Sunday, March 15, 2009

March meeting - Sunday, April 19, 2009

Directions: Make your best way to Vancouver, BC. Get onto the Trans Canada Hwy (Hwy 1) if you're not already on it. Take the Lougheed Hwy exit (Exit 44). You should be going NE. Follow Lougheed Hwy until it turns into Pinetree Way. Follow Pinetree Way to Guildford Way. Turn right. Follow Guildford Way to Ozada Ave (Guildford Way turns into Ozada Ave.). Follow Ozada Ave. to Inlet St (first right). Turn right. Follow Inlet St. to Sechelt Dr. (first left). Turn left. Look for #3174.

Alternatively, follow the directions provided courtesy of Google Maps:

http://maps.google.ca/maps?f=q&hl=en&geocode=&q=3174+Sechelt+Dr,+Coquitlam,+BC,+Canada&sll=49.891235,-97.15369&sspn=33.029007,88.769531&ie=UTF8&z=16&iwloc=addr&om=1

FROM LIONS BLOOD

Greetings unto the An Tir College of Heralds from Caitrina Lions Blood!

By now you know that our beloved Electrum Herald, Baron David of Moffat, has left our company. I find myself speechless and still seem to be without the words to adequately express my sorrow of this great loss. I had heard stories of this amazing man through the Heraldry circles in my Barony. But it would be another four years till I got to meet David in person at my first Lions Blood meeting just over a year ago, he made me feel instantly welcome as though we had been friends for a lifetime. He guided me through many email conversations and offered his assistance at any turn even though he had so many other things to occupy his time. I knew I could always call on his expertise to help through a difficult submission, or support me when a difficult decision had to be made. He shared his knowledge and love of Heraldry freely. He was the epitome of a gentleman and had one of the warmest, genuine smiles one could ever hope to find in another person. I will miss him dearly.

I also want to thank everyone who has offered assistance during the past couple of months and voiced their concerns for my well being. I would like to assure everyone that I am fine and the difficulties we have faced are being dealt with but we have a long road ahead. The excessive onslaught of snow flakes and Holiday Season only aided in prolonging the up hill battle. But we will prevail and we thank you for your continued support.

In Service and in sorrow,

Caitrina Lions Blood

LAUREL ACTIONS

The following is an excerpt from the cover letter of the September 2008 LoAR:

From Laurel: Principal Heralds and OSCAR

This is a reminder that it is part of the job of the Principal Herald to keep the heraldic titles and permissions of their people in OSCAR up-to-date. Since the roster on OSCAR is based on these permissions and titles, it is important that they are kept current.

I thank all Principal Heralds for their prompt attention to this matter.

From Laurel: A Death In The Family

We were saddened to hear last week of the death of David of Moffat, Electrum Herald of An Tir. David was active in many heraldic circles, both in the Society and in the real world. In the Society, he was known to Laurel and staff both a member of the College of Arms and one of the people who helped proofread the LoARs before final publication. His knowledge and expertise will be missed. We would like to express our condolences to his family and friends.

From Laurel: Administrative Handbook Revisions

We have been fielding questions about the new Administrative Handbook revision that was originally to be published several months ago. Unfortunately, we missed the October meeting of the Board of Directors. The BoD will be reviewing the new version at their January meeting; we expect to publish the final version as soon as possible after we receive word of their approval.

From Pelican: Concerning the Name Brenna

For the last 10 years we have registered the name Brenna roughly once per year. Most recent submissions of the name cite precedent from the April 2000 LoAR which says that "Brenna is not Gaelic, but is justfiable [sic] as possibly Italian." However, more recent scholarship shows this justification is not well-grounded.

The Problem Names article "Concerning the Names Brianna, Branna, Brenna, and Brenda", written by Arval Benicoeur in 1997, says:

Brenna is a hypothetical feminine of Brennus, which is recorded in 3rd and 4th century Roman histories as the name of leaders of a Celtic and a Galatian tribe [4]. We have no idea what the original name might have been before the Roman historian latinized it; it might have been very different. In the context of late Romano-Celtic culture, which was heavily influenced by Latin, the feminineBrenna is plausible even though it is not recorded. The name is in use in modern Italian as Brenno and Brenna; we do not know if it survived through the Middle Ages or if it was revived sometime afterward [5].

Since the publication of this article in 1997, we have gained extensive resources for late-period Italian names, none of which contain any example of Brenno. While there is a strong pattern of feminizing masculine names in Italian (in the 1427 Catasto of Florence, 29% of the masculine names have a corresponding feminine form, and 48% of the feminine names are feminized forms of masculine names), lacking evidence that Brenno was either used in medieval Italian or that the leaders of the Celtic and Galatian tribes were known to medieval Italians, it is not plausible to justify Brenna as a feminine form of this name. We hereby rule that, barring new evidence to the contrary, Brenna is no longer registerable as an Italian feminine name. It may prove registerable in the context of 3rd or 4th C Celtic/Galatian, but only if evidence is provided that masculine names used this context were femininized in this way. We invite further research on this issue.

From Wreath: A Discussion on Sustained

Over the past year, there has been an ongoing discussion about the word sustained and what it indicates. Precedent was initially set by Bruce Draconarius on the July 1992 LoAR. Da'ud ibn Auda restated it more clearly on the September 1994 LoAR:

Regarding the "significance" of the halberd, as Green Crown noted, a charge consisting mostly of a long skinny handle will always have difficulty matching the visual weight of other charges, but here the sizes of the charges are about the same as would be expected if they were in fess a bear and a halberd. That seems to be a reasonable rule of thumb for determining sustained (and qualifying for a CD), as opposed to maintained (and not qualifying for a CD), charges.

A few years later, this precedent was expanded to say that 'sustained' means 'co-primary', for example, in the Cover Letter to the October 1996 LoAR:

Maintained charges are small and do not count for difference. Sustained charges are large - large enough in fact that if they were not being held that they would be considered a co-primary, and do count for difference.

Bruce, when asked about this, stated that making them co-primary was never his intention. Sustained charges were to be considered large enough to count for difference, but this was not supposed to automatically make them primary charges: secondary charges are also considered to count for difference.

Current practice has reached the point of reducto ad absurdum: extremely skinny charges, such as a spear, are being granted equivalent weight to a large creature such as a dragon sergeant, merely because the long dimension of the two is equivalent. Were the same charges not touching, the spear would unmistakably be a secondary.

We find ourselves in agreement with Bruce: 'sustained' should not automatically equal co-primary. To that end, we would like commentary on the following proposed changes:

We intend to implement a modification to the way 'sustained' is used, so that it is possible to distinguish between co-primary sustained charges and secondary sustained charges. A model for distinguishing between the two is readily available from our method of blazoning co-primary groups versus primary and secondary groups. A lion's head between in fess two mullets is a primary between secondaries. In fess a lion's head between two mullets is three co-primary charges.

There is no reason we can not use the same mechanism for sustained charges. If an arrangement term comes before the charges, they are co-primary. If not, the charges before the arrangement term are the primary charge group. In bend a chair sustained by a lion has two co-primary charges. A lion sustaining a chair in dexter chief has the lion as the primary charge and the chair as the secondary charge.

Entwined charges present a similar problem, and have a similar solution. A snake and a rope entwined, where both charges are mentioned before the word 'entwined', will denote co-primary entwined charges. The pattern a snake entwining an arrow or a column entwined by ivy, with one charge listed on each side of the word 'entwined', will denote a primary charge and a secondary charge. In each case the first items - i.e. the snake and column - are the primary charges, and the arrow and ivy are secondary charges.

Transfixed pairs of charges (one shoved through the other) are usually of two forms. The first is a long narrow charge transfixing a fat charge (say, an arrow through an apple, drawn to proper heraldic proportions). In this case, the long narrow charge will be a secondary, the fat charge will be the primary. The other case is two narrow charges - these will be co-primaries.

This leaves us with the odd case of things like lion's heads jessant-de-lys. This is a fat charge transfixed by a fat charge. In this case, if the conjoined charges are not considered to be a single defined charge, they will be considered co-primaries. Other odd, though period issues, such as a lion seated in a chair (the attributed arms of Hector of Troy), will likely have to be dealt with on a case-by-case basis.

One issue not addressed above is where to draw the dividing line between secondary and co-primary sustained charges. Commenters are asked to propose and discuss the criteria by which a held charge gets blazoned as a sustained secondary or a sustained co-primary, as well as the other proposals above. It is not our intention to address maintained charges at this time.

The following items have been registered by Laurel

Adwen Wrenne. Name and device. Or, on a pale cotised azure a sun argent.

Ælfwynn Spearheafoces dohtor. Name.

Submitted as Ælfwynn Spearheafoc_, the byname Spearheafoc was documented from Reaney & Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames, s.n. Sparrowhawk. However, while Reaney & Wilson say of the Middle English examples of the surname that they ''must be both patronymic and a nickname'', they give no evidence for Spearheafoc used as a nickname, as opposed to a given name, in Old English. The submitter indicated that if Spearheafoc was not registerable as a nickname that she'd accept a patronymic byname based on Spearheafoc instead. The expected feminine patronymic byname based on Spearheafoc is Spearheafoces dohtor; we have change the name to Ælfwynn Spearheafoces dohtor in order to register it.

Aonghus Mac Aonghuis. Name.

Submitted as Aonghuis MacAonghuis, this name had two problems. First,Aonghuis is the genitive form of Aonghus; we register given names in the nominative, and not an inflected, form. Second, no documentation was provided for omitting the space between Mac and the patronym in a Gaelic byname in period. We have changed the name to Aonghus Mac_Aonghuis in order to register it.

Arion the Wanderer. Device. Or goutty de sang, on a pile throughout azure a trident Or.

The submission appears to have been colored in crayon. This is highly undesirable, as the wax will melt over time and stick to the facing page.

While the pile is wider than the usual in the SCA, it does not issue from the corners of the field and is, therefore, acceptable as a pile. Indeed, the Narrative Portrait of the life of Henry Unton, which resides in the National Portrait Gallery in London, UK, painted in 1596, shows arms with one of the quarters depicting Or, on a pile gules between (something), three leopards Or with the pile as nearly issuant from the corners of the shield as in the submitted depiction. The image can be seen at http://www.mape.org.uk/activities/unton/portrait/bits/frames.htm, in the "Henry's Birth" part of the image, on the lower right. Piles still should not be drawn with the lines issuing from the upper corners, but much more latitude will be allowed than has previously been the case.

Constantia of Madrone. Holding name and device. Azure, a dove volant and on a chief dovetailed Or three doves volant azure.

Submitted under the name Constantia in der lachun, that name was pended on the June 2008 LoAR.

Katharine of Lions Gate. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Gules, on a chevron argent five lozenges throughout gules and in base a goose regardant argent.

Blazoned on the Letter of Intent as a chevron enhanced, period armory would routinely displace a chevron slightly so that a large charge could fit under it. Given that practice, this is simply a chevron.

Submitted under the name Katharine atte Moure.

Katla máni. Name and device. Sable, in bend a decrescent and a cat sejant guardant argent.

Milisandia verch Watkyn. Name and device. Per pale argent and azure, an oak tree proper and on a chief sable three bears sejant erect contourny argent.

Watkyn was documented as an English diminutive of Walter, with 13th and 14th century examples cited from Reaney & Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames, s.n. Watkin. The byname does not violate RfS III.1.a Linguistic Consistency, as we have examples of Welsh verch used with linguistically English patronyms:

The byname ap Erwin does not violate RfS III.1.a, which requires lingual consistency. Though ap was documented as Welsh and Erwin was documented as English, evidence has been found of late period Welsh using English names in bynames that include ap or ferch. This issue has previously been addressed by the precedent:

Found on the LoI as Myfanwy ferch Gerallt, it was originally submitted as Myfanwy ap Gerald, and changed in kingdom because it was felt that the use of ap or ferch needed a Welsh name. However, late period Welsh used ap and ferch with English names, so we have restored the patronymic to the originally submitted form. (LoAR November 1998, p. 4).

As a result, the byname ap Erwin is registerable as a Welsh byname that incorporates an English name, which follows documented period practice. [Rhydderch ap Erwin, 03/2004, A-Æthelmearc]

As Morgan & Morgan, Welsh Surnames, p. 183 have examples of Walter used in Wales from the end of the 13th century on, verch Watkyn is unremarkable.

Mýrún Bjarnardóttir. Name and device. Per bend sinister argent and Or, a brown bear statant proper.

Please inform the submitter that the byname does not mean 'bear', it means 'daughter of Bj{o,}rn'.

Robert de Perceval. Device. Argent, on a lozenge gules a bear statant argent, on a chief gules three crosses formy argent.

Sylvia of Madrone. Holding name and device (see RETURNS for name). Sable, a flame between flaunches argent.

While the flaunches do not issue from the corners, they are recognizable as flaunches and, therefore, these are registerable. Please instruct the submitter to draw the flaunches issuant from the upper corners of the field in the future.

The device is clear of the armory of Modius von Mergentheim, Sable, a flame and a base argent, with one CD for the change of type and one CD for the change of number of peripheral charges. While flaunches must always be borne in pairs, there are still two of them.

Submitted under the name Sylva Silfri.

The following items have been returned for further work

John Wolfstan and Guerin Valletort de Harfleur. Joint badge. (Fieldless) A tilting spear fracted, the halves in saltire Or.

This badge is returned for a lack of identifiability. Neither the commenters nor those at the meeting were able to tell that this was two halves of a single item, fracted and placed in saltire. Many of them thought that the two parts were identical charges. On resubmission, the submitter should be aware that this design, while technically blazonable, may not be possible to emblazon in a fashion where the charge is identifiable.

Katharine atte Moure. Name.

This is returned for conflict with Catriona de Mura. Catriona is a modern Gaelic form of Katharine, and the two names are not pronounced significantly differently. The bynames are significantly different in appearance, but given that Middle English Moure was pronounced with two syllables, it is not significantly different from Mura in sound.

This name would also have been in conflict with Cateline de la Mor, but that name is released elsewhere on this letter.

The name does not conflict with Caitilin Mhor. The bynames are significantly different in appearance, and the change in the pronunciation of the initial consonant (Mh in Gaelic being pronounced roughly V) plus the different number of syllables is a significant difference in sound.

Her device was registered under the holding name Katharine of Lions Gate.

Sylva Silfri. Name.

Listed on the LoI as Sylva Silfri, the documentation provided on the forms and the LoI was for Sylvia, not Sylva. If the submitter desires the name Sylva, then this is the spelling that needs to be documented on the LoI.

As no documentation was provided for Sylva either on the LoI or by the commenters, we can only consider this name under the form Sylvia Silfri. This name is not registerable because it has two steps from period practice. The given name Sylvia was documented as the name of a 6th century Roman martyr who was made a saint by Pope Clement VIII in the 16th century. Because Norway was a Christian country at this time, we can give the submitter the benefit of the doubt that Saint Sylvia was known in 16th C Norway. This means that even though we do not have any clear evidence that the name was added to the Norwegian naming pool in our period, Sylvia is registerable in 16th C Norwegian contexts through the saint's name allowance. However, combining a name documented to 16th C Norwegian contexts with a byname found in Viking-era Old Norse is two steps from period practice: one for the lingual combination and one for the temporal disparity of greater than 300 years. If we had evidence that a Norwegian cognate of Old Norse silfri was used as a byname any time in the 13th century onwards, this would remove the temporal disparity and allow the name to be registered. As no such evidence was provided, we are forced to return this name.

If she wishes to resubmit a name using the byname silfri, we note that this form is not correct for a woman. The correct form is either silfra or in silfra, with the definite article.

Her armory has been registered under the holding name Sylvia of Madrone.

LIONS BLOOD ACTIONS

Due to the lack of a letter for the month of November, there are no Lions Blood actions to be posted at this time.

None.

The following submissions received for the January Internal Letter are being returned for administrative reasons.

None.

NEW SUBMISSIONS

1: Adeliza a Donyng - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• No major changes.

The submitter's branch is Aquaterra.

The submitter will not accept major changes, desires a feminine name and cares most about the spelling of her name (Adeliza). She expresses no interest in having her name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name.

Several webpages are presented as documentation for this <Adeliza>, none of which include the URLs for the pages.

The first is what appears to be a genealogical cite: "Adeliza [House of Leuven] of Louvain Queen Consort of England (I1295) Given Names: Adeliza Suffix: Queen Consort of England Gender: Female Birth: about 1103 Death: 23 April 1151 -- Affligem Abbey, Brabant Note: ada Adeliza of Louvain, Adeliza of Leuven, Adela de Leuven and Aleidis"

The second is from NationMaster.com and is an encyclopedia entry on Adeliza of Louvain which says: "Adeliza of Louvain (1103-1151) was queen consort of England from 1121 to 1135, the second wife of King Henry I of England. She was the daughter of Godfrey I of Louvain, Duke of Lower Lotharingia, Landgrave of Brabant and Count of Louvain and Brussels.

"She married King Henry I in 1121 when she is thought to have been aged somewhere between fifteen and eighteen; he was fifty three. It is believed that Henry's only reason for marrying again was his desire for a male heir. Despite holding the record for the largest number of illegitimate children of any British monarch, William Adelin was Henry's only legitimate male heir and had predeceased his father on 25 November 1120. Adeliza was reputedly quite pretty and her father was Duke of Lower Lotharingia. These were the likely reasons she was chosen. However, no children were born during the almost 15 years of the marriage.

"When her husband died on 1 December, 1135, Adeliza lived as a nun at Wilton, near Salisbury. As she was still young she came out of mourning some time before 1139 and married William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel, who had been one of Henry's chief advisors. She brought with her a queen's dowry, including the great castle of Arundel, and Stephen of England created d'Albini Earl of Arundel…."

A third source, entitled "W.H. Auden - "Family Ghosts"" looks to be identical to the first source, though it also includes the birth dates of her children, her marriages, and deaths and births of relatives.

The Rise of the Medieval World. 500-1300, edited by Kana K. Schulman details the life of Henry I of England (1668-1135) and mentions his marriage to "…Adeliza (Alice), daughter of Godfrey,, duke of Brabant and count of Louvain…". [No photocopy of the title page was included, information on title and author was gleaned from the copyright page - Lí Ban]

The Dictionary of American Family Names, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508137-4 has the following under the header "The Dunning Surname: Dunning Name Meaning and History 1. Scottish: habitational name from a place in Perthshire, recorded as Dunine and later as Dunyn, from Gaelic dùnan, a diminutive of dùn `fort'. 2. English: patronymic from Dunn. 3. Irish: variant of Downing. [It is unclear as to whether this source is a webpage or a book, neither URL nor photocopies of Title and copyright pages were included - Lí Ban]

Another webpage [no URL given], "Dunning - History" has the following: "The name Dunning appears in many forms in various documents throughout the ages: DUNNYNE - DUNYNE - DONYNG - DONYONGE - DINN - DINNIN - DUNYN - DUNING. The prefix DUN referred originally to a fortress or enclosure and later became connected with hill-names.

"The old family name of Dunning comes from the village, the founder being Anechal Thane of Dunning, who witnessed the Charter of the Earl of Strathearn setting up the foundation of the Abbey of Inchaffray around 1200. A Robert Dunnyng was seven times Provost of Perth from 1472 to 1492.

"The family and the village appear to have parted company as there has been no trace of people named Dunning in the village for the last few centuries."

Also included is a map of modern-day Scotland showing the location of present-day Dunning, 52 ½ miles from Edinburg.

The submitter includes another webpage which drew it's article from Wikipedia which has the following: "Dunning is a small village in Perth and Kinross in Scotland with a population of about 1000. The village is built around the 12th-13th century former parish church of St. Serf, where the Dupplin Cross is displayed (Historic Scotland; open in summer without entrance charge)…"

The last source provided is from the Dunning Parish Historical Society [appears to be a webpage, but as with all the rest, no URL is cited. - Lí Ban]. It details the Dupplin Cross, which was located "…in a field on the north side of the river Earn overlooking the ancient Pictish capital of Fortevoit…" and now resides in St. Serf's Church in Dunning.

1: Adeliza a Donyng - New Device

Purpure, on an Or Pile an Oak Tree truncated Vert

2: An Tir, Kingdom of - New Badge

(no blazon proposed)

The submitter's name was registered in December of 1981.

This badge is to be associated with Ordo Hastae Leonis.

3: Axxel Eisenkopf - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• No changes.
• Language (German) most important.
• Culture (German) most important.

The submitter's branch is Blatha An Oir.

The submitter will not accept any changes to his name, desires a masculine name and cares most about the language and/or culture of his name (German). He expresses no interest in having his name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name.

The submitter provides correspondence from the Academy of Saint Gabriel (Report 3044) in support of his name (http://www.s-gabriel.org/3044):

"You wanted to know if <Axel Eisenkopf> is an appropriate name for a German Landsknecht living in the early 16th century…

"…<Axel> is a Danish derivative of the Biblical name <Absalom>. One of the earliest examples is a man whose name is recorded in 1326 as <Absolon>, <Axzlen>, and <Axxel>. [3,5,11,12] The name spread to Sweden in the late 14th century and to Norway in the 16th century. [6,7] While we have found the German bynames <Absolon> in 1274 and <Absolonis> in 1413 (both Latin forms deriving from the given name Absolon> [2], we have not found the short form <Axel> in Germany before the 17th century. [13] Because of it's popularity in Denmark, it's not impossible that <Axel> was also used in northern Germany in the late 16th century, but because we haven't found any examples of this we cannot recommend it as the best re-creation."

The report goes on: "…<Einsenkopf> literally means `iron-head', and was used as a nickname for stubborn, pig-headed people. We find it spelled as <Ysenkopf> in 1418. [1] Modern German <Eisen> `iron' comes from Middle High German <isen>, earlier <isern>; typical medieval spellings include <isen>, <ysen>, <isern>, and <ysern>. [9] By the early 16th century, it was spelled <eisen> and <eysen> in most southern and central German dialects, very likely pronounced roughly EY-zen as in modern German, where EY rhymes with <eye>. [10] Based on this, <Eisenkopf> is a fine spelling for your period..."

The cited references and footnotes are as follows:

[1] Brechenmacher, Joseph Karlmann, Etymologisches Woerterbuch der deutschen Familiennamen (Limburg a. d. Lahn, C. A. Starke-Verlag, 1957-1960), p. 394, s.n. Eisenkopf

[2] Bahlow, Hans, Dictionary of German Names, tr. Edda Gentry (German-American Cultural Society, 1994 ISBN: 0924119357), p. 2, s.n. Absalon

[3] Lind, E.H., Norsk-Isla"ndska Dopnamn ock Fingerade Namn fra*n Medeltiden (Uppsala & Leipzig: 1905-1915, sup. Oslo, Uppsala and Kovenhavn: 1931), s.n. Axel

[4] Talan Gwynek, "Late Period German Masculine Given Names" (WWW: Academy of Saint Gabriel, 1997).

[5] Knudsen Gunnar, Marius Kristiansen, & Rikard Hornby, Danmarks Gamle Personnavne, Vol 1: Fornavne (Copenhagen: 1936-48). s.n. Absalon

[6] Sveriges Medeltida Personnamn, Vol. 1 - (Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1967-. bd. 1, h. 3: isbn: 91-7192-123-8; bd. 1, h. 4: isbn: 91-7192-223-7; bd. 1, h. 5: isbn: 91-7402-044-7; bd. 2, h. 6: isbn: 91-7402-104-4; bd. 2, h. 7: isbn: 91-7402-136-2, g. 8: isbn: 91-7402-115-x; bd. 2, h. 9: isbn: 91-88096-00-9; bd. 2, h. 10: isbn: 91-88096-01-7; Lund: Bloms Boktryckeri AB, 1983 bd, 2). S.nn. Absalon, Axel

[7] Kruken, Kristoffer, ed. Norsk personnamnleksikon, 2nd ed. (Oslo: Det Norske Samlaget, 1995) s.n. Aksel

[8] Von Kienle, Richard, Historische Laut-und Formenlehre des Deutschen (Tu"beingen: Max Miemeyer Verlag, 1960). p. 34

[9] Paul, Hermann, & Walther Mitzka. Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik, 19th edn. (Tu"bingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1963). p. 101

[10] The change in spelling from <isen> to modern <Eisen> represents a change in pronunciation, roughly from ee to ey, the sound of English <eye>. This change started in Austria in the 12th century and gradually spread north and west, expanding through Bavaria by about 1300, through Bohemia, Silesia, and east-central Germany by about 1400, and by the early 16th century through most of the High German dialects. (The main exceptions are the Upper German dialects of the far southwest.) Although the sound first changed to something like ay, the further change to ey (or at least a sound close to this) followed in fairly short order in most dialects. [8]

[11] Before the 14th century the usual form of the name in Danish records is <Absalon>, from Late Latin <Absolon>. This was pronounced roughly AHP-s@-l@n, where @ stands for the sound of the <a> in <about> and <sofa>. It seems that by the 14th century some speakers, substituting ks for ps, said AHK-s@-l@n, AHKS--l@n, or AHK-seln and even dropped the final

. The intermediate forms persisted at least through the 14th century - we have an example of <Axeln> from 1402 - but it was the short <Axel> that eventually won out. [6]

[12] We found a few examples of <Axel> being used as a short form of <Alexander>, but we could not determine any dates for these examples. [13]

[13] Seibicke, Wilfried. Historisches Deutsches Vornamenbuch, 4 vols. (Berlin & New York: Walter De Gruyter, 1996-2003). s.n. Axel

3: Axxel Eisenkopf - New Device

Azure, a ferret contourney, rampant, reguardant argent, on a chief Or three tankards Sable.

4: Fáelán Tǫlusmiðr - Resub Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• Meaning (First name appropriate version of Phelan. Last name norse [sic] 'word-smith') most important.

The submitter's branch is Lyonsmarche.

The submitter's previous submission of <Phelan Talasmiðr> was returned by Kingdom in March of 2008 for being a combination of Anglicized Irish and Old Norse, which is not registerable.

The submitter will accept any changes, desires a masculine name and cares most about the meaning of his name (First name appropriate version of Phelan. Last name norse [sic] `word-smith'). He expresses no interest in having his name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name.

The following is quoted from the Documentation section of the form:

"[From HL Juliana de Luna] The results on the byname are better than I expected. So, there is a possible occupational term using <tala>, but it needs a little modification for grammatical reasons. There are two big dictionaries of Old Norse: Zeoga's Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic and Cleasby-Bigfusson's An Icelandic-English Dictionary. We'll use them both here.

"Cleasby-Vigfusson An Icelandic-English Dictionary gives <t{o,}lumaðr> (where {o,} is that o with a little tail and ð is the edh). This word means basically "story teller." The first part is the genitive (possessive) form of tala.

"Zeoga's Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic gives several uses of <-smiðr> in similarly abstract constructions:

"Gallasmiðr "magic-smith, sorcerer"; B{o,}lavsmiðr "worker of mischief (Loki)"; øðarsmiðr "poet, poetry-smith"

"Zoega even gives one example with both <-maðr> and <-smiðr>: gallamaðr `wizard'; gallsmiðr `sorcerer'

"With all this, I'd expect the form to be <t{o,}lusmiðr>.

"The combination has an issue still. Something with <Ph-> is unlikely before the 16th century, which is too late to be compatible with the byname. Go with the Middle Gaelic Faelan, which is contemporary with the byname."

<Fáelán> is also supported by Mari Elspeth nic Bryan's "Index of Given Names in Irish Annals" (http:medievalscotland.org/kmo/AnnalsIndex/Masculine/Faelan.shtml) dated to between 628 and 1423. The desired form is dated to between 700-1200.

Photocopies of the article and the dictionary pages are included with this submission.

4: Fáelán Tǫlusmiðr - New Device

Argent, a pall within a bordure, overall a pall inverted couped Moline sable.

5: Mari Eisenkopf - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• No changes.

The submitter's branch is Blatha An Oir.

The submitter will not accept any changes and desires a feminine name. She expresses no preference should her name have to be changed, nor does she express any interest in having her name be changed to be authentic. She will allow the creation of a holding name.

<Mari> is found in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan's article "Feminine Given Names in the Registers of St. Mary's, Dymock (Gloucestershire, England: 1538-1600/1)" at http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/dymock/dym_women.html with the spelling of <Mari> dated to 1562 with a frequency of 3.

<Eisenkopf> is supported by Saint Gabriel Report 3044:

"You wanted to know if <Axel Eisenkopf> is an appropriate name for a German Landsknecht living in the early 16th century…

"…<Axel> is a Danish derivative of the Biblical name <Absalom>. One of the earliest examples is a man whose name is recorded in 1326 as <Absolon>, <Axzlen>, and <Axxel>. [3,5,11,12] The name spread to Sweden in the late 14th century and to Norway in the 16th century. [6,7] While we have found the German bynames <Absolon> in 1274 and <Absolonis> in 1413 (both Latin forms deriving from the given name Absolon> [2], we have not found the short form <Axel> in Germany before the 17th century. [13] Because of it's popularity in Denmark, it's not impossible that <Axel> was also used in northern Germany in the late 16th century, but because we haven't found any examples of this we cannot recommend it as the best re-creation."

The report goes on: "…<Einsenkopf> literally means `iron-head', and was used as a nickname for stubborn, pig-headed people. We find it spelled as <Ysenkopf> in 1418. [1] Modern German <Eisen> `iron' comes from Middle High German <isen>, earlier <isern>; typical medieval spellings include <isen>, <ysen>, <isern>, and <ysern>. [9] By the early 16th century, it was spelled <eisen> and <eysen> in most southern and central German dialects, very likely pronounced roughly EY-zen as in modern German, where EY rhymes with <eye>. [10] Based on this, <Eisenkopf> is a fine spelling for your period..."

The cited references and footnotes are as follows:

[1] Brechenmacher, Joseph Karlmann, Etymologisches Woerterbuch der deutschen Familiennamen (Limburg a. d. Lahn, C. A. Starke-Verlag, 1957-1960), p. 394, s.n. Eisenkopf

[2] Bahlow, Hans, Dictionary of German Names, tr. Edda Gentry (German-American Cultural Society, 1994 ISBN: 0924119357), p. 2, s.n. Absalon

[3] Lind, E.H., Norsk-Isla"ndska Dopnamn ock Fingerade Namn fra*n Medeltiden (Uppsala & Leipzig: 1905-1915, sup. Oslo, Uppsala and Kovenhavn: 1931), s.n. Axel

[4] Talan Gwynek, "Late Period German Masculine Given Names" (WWW: Academy of Saint Gabriel, 1997).

[5] Knudsen Gunnar, Marius Kristiansen, & Rikard Hornby, Danmarks Gamle Personnavne, Vol 1: Fornavne (Copenhagen: 1936-48). s.n. Absalon

[6] Sveriges Medeltida Personnamn, Vol. 1 - (Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1967-. bd. 1, h. 3: isbn: 91-7192-123-8; bd. 1, h. 4: isbn: 91-7192-223-7; bd. 1, h. 5: isbn: 91-7402-044-7; bd. 2, h. 6: isbn: 91-7402-104-4; bd. 2, h. 7: isbn: 91-7402-136-2, g. 8: isbn: 91-7402-115-x; bd. 2, h. 9: isbn: 91-88096-00-9; bd. 2, h. 10: isbn: 91-88096-01-7; Lund: Bloms Boktryckeri AB, 1983 bd, 2). S.nn. Absalon, Axel

[7] Kruken, Kristoffer, ed. Norsk personnamnleksikon, 2nd ed. (Oslo: Det Norske Samlaget, 1995) s.n. Aksel

[8] Von Kienle, Richard, Historische Laut-und Formenlehre des Deutschen (Tu"beingen: Max Miemeyer Verlag, 1960). p. 34

[9] Paul, Hermann, & Walther Mitzka. Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik, 19th edn. (Tu"bingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1963). p. 101

[10] The change in spelling from <isen> to modern <Eisen> represents a change in pronunciation, roughly from ee to ey, the sound of English <eye>. This change started in Austria in the 12th century and gradually spread north and west, expanding through Bavaria by about 1300, through Bohemia, Silesia, and east-central Germany by about 1400, and by the early 16th century through most of the High German dialects. (The main exceptions are the Upper German dialects of the far southwest.) Although the sound first changed to something like ay, the further change to ey (or at least a sound close to this) followed in fairly short order in most dialects. [8]

[11] Before the 14th century the usual form of the name in Danish records is <Absalon>, from Late Latin <Absolon>. This was pronounced roughly AHP-s@-l@n, where @ stands for the sound of the <a> in <about> and <sofa>. It seems that by the 14th century some speakers, substituting ks for ps, said AHK-s@-l@n, AHKS--l@n, or AHK-seln and even dropped the final

. The intermediate forms persisted at least through the 14th century - we have an example of <Axeln> from 1402 - but it was the short <Axel> that eventually won out. [6]

[12] We found a few examples of <Axel> being used as a short form of <Alexander>, but we could not determine any dates for these examples. [13]

[13] Seibicke, Wilfried. Historisches Deutsches Vornamenbuch, 4 vols. (Berlin & New York: Walter De Gruyter, 1996-2003). s.n. Axel

Photocopies of both sources are included with this submission.

6: Ragnarr Ulfheðnar - New Name Change

Old Item: Gregor von Drachenstein, to be retained.

• Submitter desires a male name.
• Language (unspecified) most important.
• Culture (unspecified) most important.

The submitter's branch is Hartwood.

The submitter's current name of Gregor von Drachenstein was registered in July of 2008. He desires this name to be retained as an alternate.

The submitter will accept any changes, desires a masculine name and cares most about the language and/or culture of his name (unspecified). He expresses no interest in having his name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name.

The following is presented as documentation for this name:

"Name: Ragnarra Ulfheðnar

"Given Name: Ragnarr

"Source: Geir Bassi GB p. 14 s.n. Ragnarr; FJ pp. 345 s.nn. Ragn-, -arr;

"Byname: ulfheðnar

"Meaning: Berserker, or one who wears wolf skins.

"From Haraldskvaeði (an example of Malahattr Meter in Skaldic Poetry, The Viking Answer Lady).

"Hlaðnir oru holða

"ok hvitra skjalda

"grenjuðu berserkir,

"guðr var þeim á sinnum

"emjuðu ulfheðnar

"ok isorn dúðu.

<br /><br />

"(Full they were of fighters

"and flashing shield-boards,

"western war-lances

"and wound-blades Frankish;

"cried then the bersarks,

"carnage they had thoughts of,

"wailed then the wolf-coated

"and weapons brandished.)"

<br /><br />

Haraldskvaeði, http://www.vikinganswerlady.com/meters.shtml [URL gives a 404 Page Not Found error. Site has been restructured. EDIT: This has since been fixed; the page no longer gives the error. - Lí Ban]

7: Savina Marguerite de Laurent - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• No changes.
• Language (French) most important.
• Culture (French) most important.

The submitter's branch is Glymm Mere.

The submitter will not accept any changes, desires a feminine name and cares most about the language and/or culture of her name (French). She expresses no interest in having her name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name.

Support for this name is given in Academy of Saint Gabriel Report 3329:

"You asked for our opinion of <Sabine> as a 13th-15th century French given name. You also asked about the given names <Margo> and <Margarette> as a second given name, and <de Laurent> as a byname. Here is what we found.

"…We cannot find specific examples of <Sabine>, but we can theorize that it was in use during the early part of your period. In England, we find the name <Sabina>, a Latinized form, in the late 12th and early 13th centuries [1]. The name was used early in the Middle Ages in France as well. It appears Latinized as <Savina> in the early 9th century and the name of Saint Sabine appears in place names from the 10th century to the 14th [2, 2a]. The use of the diminutive <Sabelina> some time after the late 12th century England suggests that some form of the name was used in France around the time of the Conquest [1]. <Sabine> was probably a learned form based on the Latin <Sabina>; the French form of the name was most likely <Savine>.

"The name <Margarette> is a name which we have only found in English sources; this spelling can be dated as early as 1450 [3]. It appears in modern French as <Margue/rite> (where the slash represents an acute accent over <e>). Without this modern accent, we find with this name once in the late 13th century in Paris [4], four times in the first half of the 15th century in Paris [5], and twice in the second half of the 15th century in Choisy [6]. These places are both located in French-speaking regions. The similar-sounding <Margareta> is an Occitan name as well as a moderately common Latin form; we find a single instance in the 14th century in Saint Flour [7].

"Pet forms of the name <Marguerite> were not uncommon, but <Margo> is not the best choice for you. Our two instances of this spelling come from Pe/rigueux in the 14th century, where a dialect of Occitan was spoken [8]. However, the French spelling <Margot> we find once in the late 13th century [4], twice in the first half of the 15th century [5], and four times in the later half of the 15th century [6].

"We do not find examples of double given names in French until the sixteenth century; unfortunately, this is after the period you are interested in. As a result, we cannot recommend a double given name to you as an accurate recreation of a 13th to 15th century French name.

The byname construction <de X> in France was used to create both patronymic (indicating the person's father) and locative (indicating the place a person was from) bynames [9]. We could not find any reference to a place called <Laurent>; however, we have evidence of it being used as a masculine given name. In the early part of your period, it would have been more commonly seen as <Lorent>, <Lorant>, or <Lorenz>. The spelling <Laurent> begins to appear in the later part of your period [4, 10].

"In summary, the given names <Savine>, <Margot>, and <Marguerite> are fine names for a northern Frenchwoman in your period, but not as a double given name. The patronymic byname <de Lorent> is excellent for the early part of your period, while the spelling <de Laurent> is only appropriate for the later part of your period."

The following references were used in formation of the report:

[1] Nicolaa de Bracton, "A Statistical Survey of Given Names in Essex Co., England, 1182-1272", Known World Heraldic Symposium Proceedings 1995 (SCA Inc.; WWW: privately published). http://members.tripod.com/nicolaa5/articles/women.html

[2] Morlet, Marie-Therese, Les Noms de Personne sur le Territoire de l'Ancienne Gaule du VIe au XIIe Siecle, three volumes (Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1972), II:101a.

[2a] Morlet, III:174a. Modern places <Sainte Sabine> appear in medieval records as <ecclesia Sanctae Sabinae> c.970, <Parrochia de Sancta Sabina> 1257) and <Sainte-Savine> (<Sancta Savina> 1071, <Villa Sancte Savine> 1178, <Sancta Sabina> 1248, <Saincte Savine> 1339.

[3] Withycombe, E.G., The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names, 3rd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988).

[4] Colm Dubh, "An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris", Proceedings of the Known World Heraldic Symposium 1996 (SCA: Montgomery, Alabama; WWW: SCA, Inc., 1997). http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/paris.html

[5] Friedemann, Sara L., "French Names from Paris, 1421, 1423 & 1438" (WWW: privately published, 2002-2003).

http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/french/paris1423.html

[6] Uckelman, Sara L., "Names from Choisy, France, 1475-1478" (WWW: Self-published, 2005) http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/french/choisy.html

[7] Uckelman, Sara L., "Occitan names from Saint Flour, France, 1380-1385" (WWW: Self-published, 2005) http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/french/saintflour.html

[8] Friedemann, Sara L., "Feminine Names from Pe/rigueux, 1339-1340" (WWW: Self-published, 2003) http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/french/perigueux.html

[9] Academy of St. Gabriel Report #2899 (WWW: Academy of St. Gabriel, 2004) http://www.s-gabriel.com/2899

[10] Dauzat, Albert, Dictionnaire Etymologique des Noms de Famille et Prenoms de France (Paris: Libraire Larousse, 1987).

7: Savina Marguerite de Laurent - New Device

Quarterly Argent and Azure, a sprig of laurel bendwise.

An Tir OSCAR counts: 4 New Names, 1 New Name Change, 4 New Devices, 1 New Badge. This gives 10 new items. Resub counts: 1 Resub Name. This is a total of 1 resubmission on this letter, for a total of 11 actions.

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