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An Tir IL dated 2008-12-17 (Jump to Submissions)

Unto Gwenlian Black Lion, Caitrina Lions Blood and the esteemed members of the An Tir College of Heralds to whom this missive comes, Lí Ban ingen Echtigeirn, Boar Herald, sends greetings and felicitations. First, I apologize for the length of this introductory section; it contains four months worth of LoAR information and two months of Kingdom submission information.

COMMENTARY ON THIS LETTER IS DUE ON THE 23TH OF JANUARY, 2009.

The following Lions Blood meetings will be held on at 1:00pm at Caitrina Lions Blood's home (3174 Sechelt Dr., Coquitlam, BC).

December meeting - Sunday, January 25, 2009

January meeting - Sunday, February 15, 2009

February meeting - Sunday, March 15, 2009

March meeting - Sunday, April 19, 2009

Directions: Make your best way to Vancouver, BC. Get onto the Trans Canada Hwy (Hwy 1) if you're not already on it. Take the Lougheed Hwy exit (Exit 44). You should be going NE. Follow Lougheed Hwy until it turns into Pinetree Way. Follow Pinetree Way to Guildford Way. Turn right. Follow Guildford Way to Ozada Ave (Guildford Way turns into Ozada Ave.). Follow Ozada Ave. to Inlet St (first right). Turn right. Follow Inlet St. to Sechelt Dr. (first left). Turn left. Look for #3174.

Alternatively, follow the directions provided courtesy of Google Maps:

http://maps.google.ca/maps?f=q&hl=en&geocode=&q=3174+Sechelt+Dr,+Coquitlam,+BC,+Canada&sll=49.891235,-97.15369&sspn=33.029007,88.769531&ie=UTF8&z=16&iwloc=addr&om=1

FROM LIONS BLOOD

Greetings unto the An Tir College of Heralds from Caitrina Lions Blood!

It's gone by so quickly but here we are about to enter my second year as Lions Blood. I wish everyone a very happy and healthy Holiday Season and thank you for your continued support to the entire Lions Blood team!

It's been a hard road since the decision was made to stick to the rules and enforce the Admin Handbook. It has also meant the number of Admin Returns has grown from a couple a month to 10 for September and October combined. Though it pains me to see those numbers, I also can't ignore the hours of work that would have meant for the Lions Blood staff and Commentary Heralds to get those submissions acceptable. I am hoping with the help of Heralds throughout the Kingdom, this number will diminish in time. But we need to get the word out there. We also have another problem that I'd like to get the word out about. There are an alarming number of submissions having to be returned due to insufficient number of copies. Many are only sending 1 copy of their paperwork instead of the required 3 copies. I've had a couple people tell me that their consulting Herald told them they only required one copy. We need to get the word out there that 3 copies are required. As a self proclaimed tree hugger I am hoping that someday this will change but that day is unfortunately not today. If anyone has any ideas on how to make this message as clear as possible please let me know.

In Service to Kingdom and College,

Caitrina Lions Blood

LAUREL ACTIONS

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The following is an excerpt from the cover letter of the May 2008 LoAR:

From Laurel: KWHSS

It is our pleasure to announce that KWHSS 2009 will be held in The Barony of the Lonely Tower in the Kingdom of Calontir September 4-7, 2009. We are looking forward to this opportunity to meet with all of you in a beautiful city. The Barony has lots of fun and educational things planned for us, so keep an eye out for more information as they make it available.

We apologize about the delay in the announcement and the confusion which attended this year's bid process. The fault, in this case, is with Laurel staff, not the kingdoms.

From Laurel: A Death In The Family

We are saddened to hear of the death of Anebairn MacPharlaine of Arrochar, Barding herald and the second Star Principal Herald. We extend our condolences to all who knew him.

From Laurel: May Decisions

Historically, during a team transition, separate LoARs were issued by each team. Since the current transition is being done in two separate steps, and over a three month period, we have decided to issue a single combined letter. Because of this, we will list the responsibility for decisions here.

The May name decisions for the kingdoms of An Tir, Artemisia, Atenveldt, Atlantia, Caid, Calontir, and Drachenwald were made by Margaret Pelican Emeritus; name decisions for Ealdormere, East, Gleann Abhann, Lochac, Meridies, Trimaris, West, and LoPaD were made by Aryanhwy Pelican. The May armory decisions were made by Jeanne Marie Wreath Emeritus.

From Laurel: Packets and Scheduling

It has come to our attention that there has been some concern over the enforcement of Laurel policy with regard to copies and payment, which was set forth on the March 2008 cover letter. Please be assured that we have every intention of being reasonable about this. We will not return an entire letter until and unless all options to avoid it have been explored. A single missing piece of paper will not cause an entire letter to be returned, and there are extensions written into policy to allow for missing bits and pieces to catch up with the main body of the letter. Please understand that we do not have the luxury of allowing this policy to slide. Pelican does not have the staff or the connectivity guarantees that previous sovereigns have had.

Communication, however, is essential. You will notice that the May Outlands LoI is not yet pushed, though it should have been were we rigidly enforcing the policy. White Stag, since she became aware of the issue, has kept us completely informed as she investigates, and we are giving them the leeway that we can while the issues are resolved. Permission, in this case, is easier than forgiveness.

From Pelican: SCA-Compatible Names

On the January 1996 cover letter, Talan Gwynek, Pelican King of Arms, outlined the definition of SCA-compatibility for names which we continue to use today:

This month's submission of the name Rhonwen Briana MacLean (Atlantia) raised in almost its purest form the question of just what is meant by 'SCA-compatibility' of a name. (Ceridwen Rhiannon MacLean might have posed the question a little more bluntly.) Does 'SCA-compatibility' give a name the same status as an attested period name, or does it represent a kind of second-class onomastic citizenship?

In actual usage the term SCA-compatible, when applied to a name, appears to mean 'not used by human beings in period (so far as we know), but too popular in the SCA to be disallowed'. Thus, use of one of these names is (on the best available evidence) a non-period practice. We allow many practices that were non-existent or nearly so in period, both in our names and in our armory, but in general we stigmatize them as 'weirdnesses' and do not allow too many of them to be combined in a single name or armory. They are 'compatible' in the sense that they are not completely disallowed, but they are still not considered fully acceptable. It is consistent with this approach to allow a name to include a single 'SCA-compatible' element but no more; each such element added to a name further removes it from the realm of authentic period practice. Indeed, we see no reason to distinguish between 'SCA-compatible' names and other non-period names permitted under the provisions of RfS II.4 (Legal Names): both are allowed as concessions to modern sensibilities despite their inauthentic nature.

On the January 2008 LoPaD, we asked for commentary on a question last raised on the August 1994 cover letter:

A number of commenters have stated over the past several of months that the SCA has learned a lot since its early days, and it may be time now to put away some of the "mistakes" we have heretofore continued to register. So I put it to you all now -- Should we discontinue the registration of "SCA-compatible" names that were not used by humans in period...

When the question was asked previously, the answer was "no". However, another 14 years have passed, and in that time the number of submissions which use an SCA-compatible element that have reached Laurel-level have been steadily decreasing; in the last five years names which use a SCA-compatible element have comprised about 75 (out of over 4000). (We have no information about how many of such submissions were returned in kingdom.) Additionally, both our knowledge of medieval naming practices and the number of reliable sources which are easily available to the general public, through such places as the Medieval Names Archive and the Laurel education website, have increased and so it seemed reasonable to revisit the issue.

We asked the College's opinion on two points:

- Should we continue the registration of SCA-compatible names and elements, or discontinue this practice altogether?

- If we continue to register SCA-compatible names and elements, should we continue registering some SCA-compatible names and names elements but cease to register others?

I would like to thank everyone who took the time to share their thoughts on this issue. While the commentary was, as expected, not unanimous, the majority opinion (both heralds and non-heralds) was that the time has come to do away with the practice of SCA-compatible names. The strongest argument in favor of this, voiced in various forms by many people, is based on fairness. SCA-compatible names are, as the precedent quoted first above indicates, names which, so far as we know, were not used by human beings in our period but have a high popularity level in the SCA. However, there are many names which, so far as we know, were not used by human beings in our period, but which are not given the status of SCA-compatible because they do not have a similar level of high popularity. A number of the commenters noted that it is in principle unfair, and to some extent arbitrary, to say to one submitter, "You can register this name which we have no pre-1600 evidence for because it is a popular non-period name", and say to another submitter, "You cannot register this name which we have no pre-1600 evidence for because it is an unpopular non-period name". As Effrick neyn Kennyeoch put it, "[Registering] Rhiannon because Rhiannon and her friends will be unhappy if we do not, while disallowing the equally inauthentic Garwen even though Garwen and her friends will be unhappy, is not internally consistent." It is also not consistent with our practice of ruling unregisterable other practices for which we have no period evidence, (e.g., double given names in Dutch), and allowing non-period names because they are popular unfairly penalizes people who have chosen unpopular non-period names.

Additionally, allowing name elements for which we have no evidence that they were used in period solely because they are popular is not consistent with the research and educational goals of the Society. Doing away with SCA-compatible names reflects the growth in our knowledge and standards of authenticity. As Rowel noted, "As the SCA becomes more geared towards historical accuracy in different areas (brewing, garb, etc.), the general historical atmosphere increases and it's not inappropriate for the name authenticity to proceed along with that." The low number of submissions with SCA-compatible elements which reach Laurel-level is an indication that the overall knowledge of historical naming practices in the SCA has increased.

Therefore, as of the May 2009 decisions meetings, we declare that no new name elements or name patterns will be ruled SCA-compatible, that all names previously ruled SCA-compatible are no longer SCA-compatible and that in order for them to be registered, documentation meeting the same standards as for non-SCA-compatible names will be required. We note that such evidence has been provided for the following names which used to be SCA-compatible:

- Ian: We have still found no evidence that this name was used in Scotland, but it appears in our period in Dutch as a variant of Jan and in Russian as a form of John. Ian is hence registerable as a Dutch or Russian given name. Note that in both of these cases, the name would be pronounced roughly YAHN.

- the Wanderer: This is registerable as a Lingua Anglica translation of the attested Polish byname Wandrownyk, in Taszycki, S{l/}ownik Staropolskich Nazw Osobowych, s.n. W{e,}drownik. There is also a documented German surname Wanderer, in Aryanhwy merch Catmael "German Names from Nürnberg, 1497".

- -haven in constructed English place names. When this element was ruled SCA-compatible as a deuterotheme in English place names, the only examples that had been found to that point appended the element Haven to an already existing place name. Since then, examples have been found of -haven used as a genuine deuterotheme, in Whytehauene 1279 and Whithaven 1535 (Watts s.n. Whitehaven), and Kihavene, Kyhavene c.1170-1316 and Kayhaven 1532 (Watts s.n. Keyhaven).

- Silver in order and award names: The August 2005 cover letter says that "orders named for heraldic charges or for items that, while not found in period as heraldic charges, may be used as heraldic charges...may contain the ordinary color names of any heraldic tincture." This includes the use of Silver as the ordinary color name of argent.

From Wreath: Computer Colorizing

An increasing number of submissions have been placed into OSCAR using color emblazons which are not scans of a colored emblazon; they are a scanned copy of the black-and-white emblazon which has been colorized using a paint program. Beginning at the March 2009 decision meeting, these items will be returned without consideration on their merits, regardless of any commentary on the item. Too many of these colorized emblazons are colored incorrectly and require pending, and, fundamentally, they are a violation of the Admin Handbook, section V.B.2.e which requires that there be "an accurate representation of each piece of submitted armory" on a Letter of Intent. We realize that there may be scanning and monitor issues that cause the colors not to match for all commenters, and will make allowances for this, but anything obviously re-colored will be returned.

Commenters should mention this as a possible issue, but otherwise comment fully, as it may be impossible to distinguish between colorized scans and scans of submission forms which were created using a color printer. Submissions heralds are encouraged to note which items on Letters of Intent were submitted using computer-colored emblazons on the paperwork.

From Pelican Emeritus: On the definition of the term Middle Gaelic in Black, "The Surnames of Scotland"

The question was raised recently what George Black, author of The Surnames of Scotland, means when he refers to Middle Gaelic in this work. Since many of the names he labels as Middle Gaelic are dated in the 15th C, it does not make sense that he is referring to Middle Irish, which is in use from the 9th to the 13th C. While Black does not provide a definition for this term, it is highly likely that he is using the term as defined by Alexander MacBain. Alexander MacBain provides names and timelines for various forms of Gaelic in several of his works; pp. v-vi of his An etymological dictionary of the Gaelic language note these definitions:

Irish is divided into the following four leading periods:--

I. Old Irish: from about 800 to 1000 A.D. This is the period of the glosses and marginal comments on MSS. Besides some scraps of poetry and prose entered on MS. margins, there is the Book of Armagh (tenth century), which contains continuous Old Irish narrative.

II. Early Irish, or Early Middle Irish: from 1000 to 1200 A.D.---practically the period of Irish independence after the suppression of the Danes at Clontarf and before the English conquest. the two great MSS. of Lebor na h-uidre, the Book of the Dun Cow, and the Book of Leinster mark this period. Many documents, such as Cormac's Glossary, claimed for the earlier period, are, on account of their appearance in later MSS., considered in this work to belong to this period.

III. Middle Irish: from 1200 to 1500 (and in the case of the Four Masters and O'Clery even to the seventeenth century in many instances). The chief MSS. here are the Yellow Book of Lecan, the Book of Ballimote, the Leabar Breac or Speckled Book, and the Book of Lismore.

IV. Modern, or New Irish, here called Irish: from 1550 to the present time.

As already said, the literary language of Ireland and Scotland remained the same till about 1700, with, however, here and there an outburst of independence. The oldest document of Scottish Gaelic is the Book of Deer, a MS. which contains half a dozen entries in Gaelic of grants of land made to the monastery of Deer. The entries belong to the eleventh and twelfth centuries, the most important being the first---the Legend of Deer, extending to 19 lines of continuous prose. These entries form what we call Old Gaelic, but the language is Early Irish of an advanced or phonetically decayed kind. The next document is the Book of the Dean of Lismore, written about 1512 in phonetic Gaelic, so that we may take it as representing the Scottish vernacular of the time in inflexion and pronunciation. It differs considerably from the contemporary late Middle Irish; it is more phonetically decayed. We call it here Middle Gaelic, a term which also includes the MSS. of the M'Vurich <seanchaidhean>. The Fernaig MSS., written about 1688, is also phonetic in its spelling, and forms a valuable link in the chain of Scottish Gaelic phonetics from the Book of Deer till now. The term Gaelic means Modern Gaelic.

The same abbreviations, OIr, EIr, Ir, MG, and G, occur throughout Black; it seems reasonable that the periods defined by MacBain are the periods he describes when using these terms and abbreviations.

The following is an excerpt from the cover letter of the June 2008 LoAR:

From Laurel: June Decisions

As we mentioned last month, we are listing decision responsibilities for the month here, as we are producing a single combined letter.

The June name decisions for the kingdoms of Æthelmearc, An Tir, Ansteorra, Atenveldt, Atlantia, and Calontir were made by Aryanhwy Pelican; name decisions for Drachenwald, the East, Lochac, Outlands, the West, and the Laurel LoPaD were made by Margaret Pelican Emeritus. The June armory decisions were made by Jeanne Marie Wreath Emeritus.

From Pelican: On Changes Made to Names in Kingdom

Over the last few months we have been seeing many names which have been altered from the originally submitted form by the kingdom submissions herald, but where no indication of these changes is made in OSCAR. I would like to clarify the proper handling of such cases.

While not all kingdoms use an internal Letter of Intent process for considering their submissions, all kingdoms do have an internal procedure of some kind. When a name has completed this internal procedure, there are three things that could be the case:

- (a) so far as the commenters and the submissions herald can determine, the name is registerable with no changes needed (in which case it is put on the next external Letter of Intent).

- (b) so far as the commenters and the submissions herald can determine, the name is not registerable as submitted or does not meet the authenticity request as made on the forms, but there is a change which would make the name registerable, and the change is either one that the submitter allows (based on the check-boxes on the forms) or the submitter is contacted and explicit permission for the change is received. In this case, the original submissions forms should be altered in such a fashion that the changed name is clearly represented, but the originally submitted spelling is still legible. The best way to do this is to draw a single line through the originally submitted form of the name and print the changed spelling above it. New submissions forms should not be made. On the external LoI, both the originally submitted form of the name and the reason why the name was changed in kingdom need to be provided.

- (c) so far as the commenters and the submissions herald can determine, the name is not registerable because it has conflicts, lacks documentation, or otherwise violates a rule or precedent, and there is no change that the submitter allows that can be made to make it registerable. In this case, the name should be returned and any further submission should be made on fresh forms and go through the internal process from the start.

There are two things which submissions heralds should try to avoid. The first is returning names which may not be registerable as submitted but which could be registered with changes that the submitter allows. When returning a name, the submissions herald should always be able to point to a specific precedent, rules violation, or conflict. Discrepancies between the submitted form and the documentation when the submitter allows all changes are, by themselves, not a reason for return in kingdom. The second is putting resubmissions on an external LoI without having put them through the standard internal procedure. Only in very rare cases will it be anything but a disservice to the client to omit the first level of review; if there is a problem with the new submission, it is always better to catch it as early in the process as possible. If the internal procedure is omitted for a resubmitted name, and it is put directly on an external LoI without being given the opportunity to be vetted for potential problems in internal commentary, this increases the chances that the name will be returned at Laurel level. In general, a good rule of thumb is that if the changes to a name are minor enough that it doesn't have to go through the internal process, then new forms should not be created but instead the old forms should be modified. If the changes are major enough to require the creation of new forms, then the submission should start at the beginning and go through the entire internal process.

It is extremely important that registerable names not be returned in kingdom; that resubmitted names be treated to the full heraldic processing procedure of the receiving kingdom; and that any changes made to a name in kingdom be clearly marked on the forms and specified on the external LoI. If information about changes made in kingdom is not provided in OSCAR, this omission will result in names being pended until the information is received, and systematic failure to provide this information will result in names being administratively returned.

From Pelican: On Undocumented Names

A name submission was considered this month for which no documentation was provided for either element on the Letter of Intent, and no explicit request for help documenting the name was made. This is in violation of Admin Handbook V.B.2.d and V.C.2 which requires that a name be accompanied by supporting documentation and that this documentation be summarized on the Letter of Intent. Loyall argued that:

Kingdoms can't create holding names, and the submitter has allowed any changes. If the kingdom commenters don't have the expertise to fix the name but believe that something close is registrable, and an associated device or badge submission looks reasonable, there's a certain pressure on kingdom to send the whole package up.

We would like to remind submissions heralds that only in very exceptional circumstances (for example, names in obscure cultures where few sources are available in English) should a name be sent forward without documentation, and in those cases a specific request for help should be made to the commenters. It is not the job of the commenters to document names which were not documented in kingdom, and it is poor practice to send forward undocumented names solely so that the associated armory does not have to be returned in kingdom. Precedent more than 20 years old notes that:

"Holding names are for use at the Laurel level only. Problems found at the kingdom level should be dealt with before the submission is sent out on a letter of intent. [BoE, cvr ltr, 29 Dec 85, p.4]"

This is still good advice which should be followed whenever possible.

From Wreath Emeritus: Fimbriated Ordinaries and Overall Charges

For several years now, we have been returning armory that uses fimbriated ordinaries with overall charges, based on the following precedent from October 1992:

Cerridwen nic Alister. Device. Vert, on a pale purpure fimbriated ermine two axe-heads, blades to chief, overall a lion passant Or.

The device is overly complex. Ermine fimbriation is disallowed (LoAR of 3 Aug 86, p.17), as are overall charges surmounting fimbriated ordinaries (9 March 86, p.12). Reblazoning this as Vert, on a pale ermine a pallet purpure charged with two axe-heads ... overall a lion passant Or would remove those objections, but then the axe-heads would be obvious quaternary charges. No matter how blazoned, this is unacceptably complex.

A submission this month, that of Faolán Ó Sirideáin, challenged this ban in appealing a kingdom return, on the basis that the precedent from 9 March 1986 did not exist and that at least one piece of armory was registered that month with this motif, that of Dak Ulfredsson, Pean, a bend sinister azure fimbriated Or and overall a goat's head erased Or.

The submitter is correct, at least, in stating that the precedent being quoted does not appear to exist on that letter. The only reason for return of this motif that we have found, other than for conflict, before October of 1992 was the June 1988 return for identifiability reasons of the submission of Alaric Kelson Palamon (Per bend sinister vert and azure, a pile issuant bendwise sinister from dexter base gules, fimbriated, overall a hawk striking Or). No absolute prohibition on this practice surfaces until the October 1992 return of Cerridwen's armory, citing a non-existent precedent. Indeed, the standard set in November of 1989 reads as follows:

Crimson River, Shire of Azure, a pall wavy gules, fimbriated, in chief a horse's head couped, overall a laurel wreath argent.

The combination of the old rules with their wording on "thin-line heraldry" and the standing Laurel precedent indicated that the pall with a complex line should not be fimbriated. To allow comment on this subject, this item was pended from the August meeting. Although little commentary has been elicited, the bulk of commentary on the rules ran to the direction of allowing latitude where identifiability was not unacceptably reduced. This resulted in the wording of the new rules which limit voiding and fimbriation to "simple geometric charges placed in the center of the design" (Armorial Identifiability, VIII.3, p. 11). PRECEDENT: For the purposes of the rule on Armorial Identifiability, any ordinary placed at the center of the shield (e.g., a pale, pall, bend, fess, etc.) may be fimbriated, even if it uses a complex line of division, provided that the identifiability of the charge and the line of division are not significantly reduced by the voiding or fimbriation or any other element of the design (e.g., the placement of superimposed charges). [emphasis added]

...which explicitly states that overall charges are acceptable over fimbriated ordinaries.

The 1992 precedent was applied in November 1992 in the return of Dyryke Raleigh's device and then appears to be forgotten for quite some time. In May 1993, the armory of Brychen Silverfist was returned for complexity - a combination of a complexity of eight and fimbriation, and also for an arrow drawn with unrecognizably small fletching and point. The 1992 precedent was not mentioned.

Starting in May 1994, 14 items with this motif were registered without comment, all returns being for other reasons, until October 2002, in the return of the device of the Shire of Rivenvale. Curiously, the very next month, a device with a fimbriated ordinary and an overall charge was accepted without comment (Thomas de Carisbourg).

From that point onward, however, the precedent has been applied, leading to returns in February 2003 and January 2004. It was mentioned in the acceptance of Bj{o,}rn blundr Tomasson in December 2006, noting that his previous return of the same armory had not mentioned the issue, nor had it been raised in commentary, so it was being allowed. There is also a June 2007 acceptance of this motif using the grandfather clause.

While several commenters have called for a continuing ban unless period evidence can be found for the motif, this standard exceeds our usual standard. Both fimbriated ordinaries and overall charges are found in period. The combination of two motifs found in period armory would be at most a single step from period practice.

We are hereby returning to the original standard: the use of an overall charge surmounting a fimbriated ordinary is henceforth acceptable as long as identifiability is maintained.

From Wreath Emeritus: On Permission to Conflict and Difference

We would like to remind commenters that items registered with permission to conflict do not set a ruling on whether or not there is difference granted between particular designs unless otherwise stated. Standard policy is that we do not declare a difference if we are not forced to as part of the ruling. The presence of a Letter of Permission to Conflict removes the necessity for this declaration to be made.

The following is excerpted from the July 2008 LoAR:

From Laurel: July Decisions

As we mentioned last month, we are listing decision responsibilities for the month here, as we are producing a single combined letter.

The July name decisions were made by Aryanhwy Pelican. The July armory decisions for Æthelmearc, Ansteorra, Artemisia, Atenveldt, and the LoPaD were made by Jeanne Marie Wreath Emeritus; the armory decisions for An Tir, Atlantia, Caid, Calontir, Drachenwald, Gleann Abhann, Lochac, and Meridies were made by Istvan Wreath.

From Pelican: Changes to the Alternate Titles List

The following titles are added to the French section of the alternate titles list: Conte ("Count", early period); Contesse ("Countess", early period); Maistre ("Master", late period); Mestre ("Master", early period); Maistresse ("Mistress", late period); and Mestresse ("Mistress", early period).

The following titles are removed from the French section of the alternate titles list: Maître ("Master"), Maîtresse ("Mistress"). The January 2006 cover letter notes that

[W]e must conclude that modern French spellings that use the circumflex are not representative of period French forms. While words that can be found with this mark in original period texts may be registered using this mark, French words that use the circumflex are not otherwise registerable.

It only makes sense to apply the same standards to the alternate titles list that we do to the registration of names. We welcome research into the use of the spellings maître and maîtresse with the circumflex accent in our period; provided with such evidence we'd be happy to restore these forms to the alternate titles list.

At this time we are not adopting the proposals of Albion to add Damoiselle as a French alternate title for "lady" and to remove Madame as the French alternate title for the same. Concerning the first, Loyall has provided evidence that Damoiselle and its variants were used as titles for wives and sisters of men whose rank described as domicellus, armigerus, scutiferus, or by the French escuier, according to Theodore Evergates, Feudal Society in the Bailliage of Troyes under the Counts of Champagne, 1152-1284. The last is a cognate with English "squire", which is not a rank recognized by the College of Arms. Therefore Damoiselle should not be restricted to use by those who have Awards of Arms. The argument for removing Madame from the list was that it was a form of address, and not a title. Loyall has also provided examples of Madame apparently used as a title at the end of our period, including Madame de Ancre 1617, from the Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. madame. Given this information we will keep Madame on the list of French alternate titles.

From Wreath Emeritus: Concerning the Heads of Dogs, Wolves, and Similar Beasts

In commentary on the submission of Clarissima della Chiesa (Ansteorra LoI of July 2007), the issue was raised on the difference to be granted between the heads of heraldic canines: wolves, foxes, and the various breeds of dogs. It tied in as well to the difference granted for the full-bodied beasts, but Clarrisima's submission required only a ruling on their heads.

Generally speaking, when comparing two charges, our criterion has been whether the charges were distinguished by period heralds... or, perhaps more accurately, whether there's evidence that they weren't distinguished by period heralds. Lacking such evidence, if the charges being compared are both period charges, in their period postures, then we tend to grant at least a CD between them. (See the discussion on ravens vs. falcons, on the LoAR Cover Letter of February 2006; and the discussion on crabs vs. lobsters vs. scorpions, on the LoAR of February 2007.)

Most of the dogs, foxes and wolves in period armory were chosen for cants: the badge of Talbot will always be blazoned a Talbot, regardless of how it's drawn. Once canting is discounted, there is still evidence that canine heads were drawn interchangeably, with the same arms sometimes depicted with hounds' heads and other times with wolves' heads. While this is strong evidence, it is not conclusive: we don't know whether the blazon evolved along with the depiction.

If Society armory limited itself to the very few breeds of dogs found in period armory -- the talbot or kennet, the greyhound, the alaunt, the mastiff, and perhaps a couple of others -- then we might see granting difference between those breeds and wolves or foxes. However, the Society permits a far greater variety of dog breeds -- any breed, so long as it was known in period -- and the confusion with wolves and foxes is thus increased many-fold. Given the documented examples of confusion between hound's heads, wolf's heads, and fox's heads in period, the added confusion with all these breeds makes it impossible to grant difference.

Therefore, we here affirm the Society's policy of granting no difference for type of canine head: dog's heads (of whatever breed), wolf's heads, and fox's heads are treated as negligibly different. This was the specific issue with Clarissima's submission, which has now been addressed. We look forward to further arguments, based on period evidence, regarding whether difference should be granted for type of full-bodied canine (as opposed to merely their heads).

From Wreath Emeritus: Thanks and Good-Bye

This is the last letter where I have made decisions so I'd like to take a brief moment to thank some of those who made this job possible: Davin Mac Alister of Drake's Height, Elspeth Charissa aus Reinwald, Eiríkr Mj{o,}ksiglandi Sigurðarson, Hrorek Halfdane of Faulconwood, Tanczos Istvan, Zenobia Naphtali, Daniel de Lincoln, and Shauna of Carrick Point. A special thanks to Bruce Draconarius of Mistholme who, when real life came crashing down (especially as my mother's health rapidly failed), was there to help pick up the pieces. He was always willing to write draft decisions, do additional research, make time for additional proof-reading, and just make time to listen about heraldry and non-heraldry issues. Without the behind-the-scenes work and support of these people, this job wouldn't have been nearly as easy, and interesting, as it was.

I'll echo Margaret Pelican Emeritus's statement "administration and proofing is also a huge responsibility"; without the support of the proof-readers, of Daniel (who compiled the commentary monthly and prepared the XML), of Shauna (who was always willing to pull an emblazon - or many - on no notice), and Istvan ("You want OSCAR to do what? Sure, no problem"), getting an LoAR out just wouldn't have been possible.

Thanks and good-bye!

The following is an excerpt from the cover letter of the August 2008 LoAR:

From Laurel: Don't Let This Be You, a Heraldic Horror Story

Listen, my children, and you shall hear / Of the loss of packets from An Tir.

Laurel would like to suggest that all kingdoms consider using some form of tracking number, if at all possible, when mailing heraldic packets. Tracking, through the USPS, costs around $0.50. The service is called 'Delivery Confirmation', and does not require a signature by the recipient.

When the packet for the August An Tir letter of intent was late, Ragged Staff contacted kingdom staff. After a few extra days wait, to see if the packet would actually arrive, they re-constructed the packet and again mailed it. The second copy also never arrived. At that point, it was not possible to delay the mailing of Wreath copies for the December meeting any further, so their letter had to be pushed to January.

We later determined that the person doing the mailing had a digit wrong in the zip code. The two packets are theoretically somewhere in Butte, MT, rather than Billings, MT. The postmaster in Billings, when asked, said that returns are much lower priority: they can take as long as a month to arrive, if they return at all.

The moral of this story is based on the fact that a lot of time was spent waiting for the packets to not show up. Had tracking numbers been used, it would have been immediately evident not only where the packets were, but what had gone wrong. If you do use tracking numbers, please send the number and service (USPS, UPS, FedEx, etc) to Ragged Staff so that Laurel and her staff will have an idea of when things might arrive.

If tracking numbers or some other alternative aren't or can't be used, it would still be appreciated if Ragged Staff is notified when a packet is mailed.

From Wreath: A Call For Discussion of Crosses and Substantial Difference

The cross is one of the most prolific charges found in medieval heraldry. There were at least a dozen types of "discrete" cross (i.e., a cross used as a charge like a lion or hammer, and not as an ordinary like a fess or bend) found in heraldry by the end of the 14th Century; modern heraldry texts can cite well over a hundred, though it's doubtful how many of the latter were actually used in armory. The Society's question has always been how to count difference between these cross variants. For this discussion, we are considering only discrete crosses such as the cross flory, and not the cross as an ordinary, either plain or complex (e.g., cross engrailed.)

Generally, Sovereigns of Arms have been reluctant to grant substantial difference between discrete cross variants: the number of rulings that have granted substantial difference have been far fewer than the rulings that have explicitly disallowed it. We have a guideline of sorts:

In most cases where substantial difference is given, it is because the charges in question are standard period charges which are definitely not standard period variants of one another and are always visually distinct. [Dec 01]

In practice, the "visually distinct" clause has been used to limit to a CD the difference between two period crosses that were considered as different as lions and horses.

In commentary, Batonvert noted an article by Gerard Brault, in Coat of Arms magazine ("The Cross in Medieval Heraldry", Coat of Arms I(90):54-64, Summer 1974), in which the forms of discrete crosses are listed. In modern blazon, these would be the cross flory (and its artistic variants, the crosses floretty, patonce, and clechy), the cross crosslet (and its variant, the cross botonny), the cross Moline (and its variants, the crosses sarcelly, recercelly, anchory and miller), the cross formy (also called the cross paty), the cross patriarcha (and its variant, the cross of Lorraine), the cross potent (also called the cross billety), the cross couped, the tau cross (also called the cross of S. Anthony), the cross Calvary, the cross of Toulouse, the cross gringoly, and the cross pomelly (also called the cross bourdonny). A later form of cross not discussed in Brault's article is the Maltese cross.

All of these crosses are "standard period charges" which were "not standard period variants of one another" -- and, we suspect, would have been considered "visually distinct" by period heralds. We propose that substantial (X.2) difference be granted between any two crosses on the above list.

Other crosses might also get substantial difference, depending on circumstance: we note, for instance, that substantial difference was granted between the cross Moline and the cross of three crossbars, missing the dexter base arm based on the number of limbs on each cross (May 01).

Commenters are asked to discuss two questions. First, the question of granting substantial difference between all of the above cross types. Secondly, the question of what standards should be set, if any, for determining substantial difference between crosses, including non-period cross types, in the future.

From Pelican: On Documenting Names from Searle, Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum

We regularly see names which are documented from Searle, Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum. The book was intended to be a collection of attested Old English names. However, in the 100 years since its publication, the standards of scholarship have changed, which means that the book is less reliable than more recent works and that it should be used with great care. Many submitters and heralds do not know the problematic aspects of this book, so we are outlining the major ones here.

First, all of the headwords that Searle uses have been standardized to a normalized Old English form. As he says on p. viii of the introduction, "The names, whether Northumbrian, Mercian, West Saxon, or Kentish, have been arranged according to the West Saxon spelling as given in Sweet's Glossary to his Oldest English Text". Sometimes these normalized forms are identical with the documentary forms (that is, the forms as they are found in actual documents), but in general there is no way to tell whether this is the case from the entry alone. The only forms that can safely be assumed to be documentary are the secondary headwords.

Second, and connected to the first issue, Searle included many non-Old English names, including Continental Germanic and Old Norse names that were found in the English documents that he was using as sources, even when the bearer is known not to have been English. For instance, he lists the Continental Germanic masculine name Ebroin as an instance of its Old English cognate Eoforwine. However, the fact that Ebroin was used in the 7th C does not mean that its Old English cognate Eoforwine was also used at that time. In fact, in some cases the Old English cognate name is not attested at all.

Third, Searle gives many variant spellings of the individual themes, and these variant spellings should be used with care. Some of the variants that he lists are very rare, perhaps even scribal errors. Some of the variants he may have misidentified; for example, he lists bren- as a variant spelling of the theme beorn-, but none of the commenters were able to find any examples of a name using the theme beorn- where the theme was spelled bren- (Brinwen the Fair, LoAR 05/2008, East-A, q.v.). Furthermore, some variant spellings are the result of different orthographic practices in different dialects, which means that some particular prototheme variant may not be compatible with a particular deuterotheme variant even if both are individually unexceptionable. The variant spellings of themes that Searle gives may only be used if it is demonstrated that they were both used in names which are temporally and dialectically compatible.

Given these issues, Searle in general should not be relied upon as the sole source of documentation for an Old English name. Whenever possible, any entry in his book should be corroborated with information from another source, such as Tengvik, Old English Bynames; the Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England; or Sean Miller's database of Anglo-Saxon charters.

The following items have been registered by Laurel

May 2008

Annaka Poznanska. Device. Quarterly argent and azure, in bend sinister two bees Or within a bordure embattled counterchanged.

Annys Bradwardyn. Device change. Argent, a cross bottony quarter-pierced sable.

Her previous device, Checky argent and azure, a cross bottony sable quarter-pierced argent, is released.

Mathieu Thibaud Chaudeau de Montblanc. Device. Argent, three keys palewise, wards to dexter base sable.

Nice armory.

Pernell Camber. Name and badge. (Fieldless) On an acorn argent an ermine spot sable.

Qoyor Singqortai. Name (see RETURNS for device).

Refr orðlokarr. Name.

Regina O'Duncan. Device. Argent masoned sable, a violet purpure slipped and leaved vert seeded Or within a bordure purpure.

Please advise the submitter to draw the bordure and the masoning wider.

The submitted device is clear of the device for Kalea of House Lavender Rose, reblazoned elsewhere on this letter as Ermine, a serpent coiled sable sustaining by its slip a rose purpure barbed seeded and slipped vert. There is a CD for changes to the field and another for removing the snake. Some people believed that there should be a CD for the orientation of the roses as the slip of Regina's rose is bendwise and that of Kalea's is bendwise sinister. However, while we might blazon the orientation of slipping and leaving, the latter is usually not worth difference at all (even in its addition or deletion, let alone its orientation). If a slip is so big that its orientation counts, then it's more properly blazoned a slip flowered, not a flower slipped.

Salia d'eschele. Name.

This name mixes Frankish given name and an early Anglo-Norman byname; this is one step from period practice.

Sidroc Hrólfsson. Name and device. Argent, two griffins combatant, that to dexter sable and that to sinister azure, on a bordure sable an orle of chain Or.

This name combines an Old English form of an Old Norse name and Old Norse; this is one step from period practice. If the submitter desires a fully Old Norse form of this name, we suggest Sigtryggr Hrólfsson. Sigtryggr appears as a given name in the "Titles" section of Lindorm Eriksson, "The Bynames of the Viking Age Runic Inscriptions" (www.s-gabriel.org/names/lindorm/runicbynames/). If the submitter is interested in a fully Old English form for this name, we suggest Sidroc Rolfes sune. Metron Ariston notes, "Sawyer 1448a, an Old English document containing a list of sureties for the estates of Peterborough Abbey dating to 983 - 985 clearly shows the name of Þurferð Rolfes sune as one of the sureties. (You can find the full text online at www.anglo-saxons.net/hwaet/?do=seek&query=S+1448a.)"

The submitter is a knight and thus entitled to display an orle of chain.

Tessa Tazzi. Device. Per chevron Or and gules, two cups and issuant from base a demi-sun counterchanged.

June 2008

Andrew Crowe. Name.

Heinrich Wilhelm. Name and badge. Azure, a wing within a bordure argent.

Submitted as Heinrich Wilhelm von Ansbach, the submitter requested an authentic 11th-13th C German name. No evidence was provided either on the LoI or by the commenters for the use of two bynames in German during this period. Additionally, while the town Ansbach dates to at least the 13th century, the earliest byname based on the place name that was found by the College was der Onspech 1492, in Brechenmacher, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Familiennamen, s.n. Ansbach. Lacking earlier examples of this byname, it is not authentic for the submitter's desired era. We have dropped the second byname and are registering the name as Heinrich Wilhelm_ 'Heinrich son of Wilhelm' to meet the submitter's authenticity request. Heinrich Wilhelm is a fine 13th C German name; both Heinricus and Wilhelmus are found in Talan Gwynek, "German Given Names 1200-1250"; these are Latinized forms of Heinrich and Wilhelm, respectively.

One commenter noted a possible conflict with the arms of Dante Alighieri, Azure, a sinister wing argent, claiming that Dante's arms had been depicted with both a dexter and a sinister wing, which would remove our CD for orientation of wings; but the commenter did not cite any documentation to support this claim. We have been unable to find these depictions, so we are continuing our practice of granting a CD for orientation of wings, making this submission clear of Dante's arms with one CD for the orientation of the wing and one for the addition of the bordure.

Jorgen von Stein. Name.

Mór Bran. Reblazon of device. Per bend sinister argent and vert, a crow sable and an hautboy bendwise sinister argent.

Registered in November 2006 with the blazon Per bend sinister argent and vert, a crow sable and an hautbois bendwise sinister argent, there is but a single hautboy on the device. As Clarion pointed out for another submission, "According to Merriam Webster online, the plural of hautboy is hautbois or hautboys."

Nicolette Thomas. Blanket permission to conflict with name.

The submitter grants blanket permission to register names that conflict with but are not identical to her registered name. Further, she notes that, if the Rules for Submission are changed to allow registration of identical items, she will allow registration of items that are identical to her name.

Onnwuen Æthelhelmes dohtor. Name and device. Azure, a harp and on a chief embattled Or three crescents gules.

Submitted as Onnwuen Aethelhelmsdottr, the byname was improperly constructed. Aethelhelm is not a plausible variant spelling of Æthelhelm, as past precedent indicates:

The name Aelric is a misrepresentation of the Old English Ælric; Ae is not a valid spelling for Æ; when such names are translated to Middle English, the Æ typically appears as either A, Ai, or E. [LoAR 11/2004]

Additionally, the genitive of Æthelhelm is Æthelhelmes, not Æthelhelms. Finally, no documentation was provided for dottr as a word meaning 'daughter' in any language. The usual spelling for the word in Old English is dohtor. We have therefore changed the byname to Æthelhelmes dohtor to fix the grammar and documentation problems.

No documentation was provided that there was significant contact between Cornish and Old English speakers, which is required in order for names combining these two languages to be registerable. Tangwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn, "Cornish (and Other) Personal Names from the 10th Century Bodmin Manumissions", includes a number of names of Old English origin and notes that the Manumissions were written in Old English and Latin. Furthermore, the section on "name formats" lists one Teþion filius Wasso; Teþion is of Cornish origin and Wasso of Old English. Given this information, we hereby rule that Cornish and Old English can be combined in the same name with no step from period practice.

Tymothy of Dover. Name.

Wilhelmin Weissenheimerin. Household name Companye of Seint Audre.

July 2008

Alexandria Sophie Kessler. Name.

This name combines English and German in the same name; this is one step from period practice.

Aline de Seez. Name and device. Per chevron azure and Or, a decrescent and an increscent argent and a tree blasted and eradicated sable.

An Tir, Kingdom of. Order name Honor of the Lion's Sword.

Every aspect of this order name is grandfathered to the submitters. Honor is not generally acceptable as an order name designator; its use is grandfathered based on the previous registrations to the kingdom of Belated Rose, Honor of the; Lion's Heart, Honor of the; Lion's Rapier, Honor of the; and Lions Arrow, Honour of the. While the pattern of animal + weapon is not a documented pattern of period order names, these last two registrations show a pattern of order names of the form lion's + weapon, so this construction is grandfathered to the kingdom. Finally, precedent indicates that the use of the apostrophe to indicate the possessive is also not generally registerable:

Submitted as Order of the Lion's Paw of Kenmare, we have removed the apostrophe; there is no evidence that the apostrophe was used in period. [Northkeep, Barony of, 05/04, A-Ansteorra]

Its use here is also grandfathered to the kingdom based on the second and third registrations cited above.

Elfreda atte Kingeswode. Name.

Gregor von Drachenstein. Name change from Diego Ramirez de Salamanca.

His previous name, Diego Ramirez de Salamanca, is released.

Inga in hraustliga. Name reconsideration from Inga hraustlig.

We note that both the previously registered form and the new form are correct. Old Norse adjectives come in two grammatical forms, strong and weak. The strong masculine adjective hraustligr becomes hraustlig when feminized; the weak masculine form of the adjective, which uses the definitive article when used in a descriptive byname, is hraustligi, which becomes hraustliga when feminized.

Her previous name, Inga hraustlig, is released.

John Warrick Draker. Name and device. Argent, a horse's head couped contourny sable within a bordure dovetailed gules.

The submitter requested an authentic name but did not specify a language, culture, or time period. The name is possible for late 16th-century England, but even then the use of two inherited bynames was never common.

Kara of Saint David. Name and device. Sable, a horse's head couped argent and on a chief Or three pheons inverted gules.

Submitted as Kara of Saint Davids, the byname was documented as a locative byname based on a Welsh city. However, no evidence was provided that the city was known as Saint Davids in our period; the only dated citation provided was for the name Mynyw in 1603. Watts, Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, shows a number of medieval place names of the form Saint + given name; in non-Latin contexts, the given name is in the nominative, not the genitive case. This supports Saint David as a constructed place name. We have changed the name to Kara of Saint David in order to register it.

Kara is the submitter's legal given name. It is not intrusively modern, as Geirr Bassi, The Old Norse Name, lists an Old Norse feminine name Kára.

Katryne MacKim. Name.

Submitted as Kathryn_ MacKim, the submitter requested an authentic 16th C Scots name. No documentation was provided and none found for Kathryn as a Scots form. Sharon Krossa, "Early 16th Century Scottish Lowland Names", has one instance of the similar spelling Katryne. We have changed the name to Katryne MacKim to meet her request for authenticity. It is authentic for a woman to use a Mac- style byname in Scots, as previous precedent indicates:

"Bynames in Scots were sometimes literal and sometimes inherited. In the case of inherited surnames, women sometimes had Mac- style surnames. For example, Black (p. 471 s.n. MacClumpha) dates Joneta Makgillumquha to 1406." [Esa mac Duf, 10/2002, A-East]

Maderun verch Trahaern. Device. Or, a fess dancetty vert, overall an urchin rampant gules.

Please advise the submitter to draw the urchin larger so that more of it is on the field. This will improve the contrast, which will make it more easily identifiable.

Myvanwy Loyt. Device change. Per bend sinister argent and vert, a triquetra azure and a tree eradicated argent.

Her previous device, Argent, a triquetra azure and a mountain of three peaks vert, is released.

Ninian Mackraken. Name and device. Argent, a kraken gules within a bordure wavy azure.

Rúadhán Ó Fearáin. Name and device. Vert, within a stag's massacre a crescent argent.

Steven Desjardins. Name and device. Per fess sable and argent, a keystone and a ferret rampant counterchanged.

This form of a keystone appears to be a modern stylization originating with the State of Pennsylvania. Unless documented to period, the use of this form of the charge in SCA heraldry will be considered a step from period practice.

Taisiia Brutova doch'. Name and device. Argent, a frog gules spotted within a bordure sable.

August 2008

Ada Thomas Heilyn. Name.

The submitter requested an authentic Welsh name, but this request was not summarized on the LoI. Had the commenters not provided information showing that this is an authentic 16th century Welsh name, we would have had to pend this name for further commentary.

Please inform the submitter that, as documented, this is a masculine name meaning 'Ada, son of Thomas, son of Heilyn'.

Aleyn Wykington. Name.

The submitter requested authenticity for 12th-14th C English. Both elements can be documented to the 13th century, so this is a fine 13th C English name.

Calandra de Silva. Device. Sable, a bend between two bees Or banded sable.

The submitter has a letter of permission to conflict from Matthew of Norfolk, Sable, a bend between two mullets of eight points Or.

Edward Cire of Greymoor. Badge. (Fieldless) A scorpion passant argent.

This depiction of a scorpion passant is grandfathered to the submitter.

Elspeth Dubh inghean Dubhghaill. Device. Per saltire azure and purpure, a cross patonce and a chief embattled argent.

Elspeth Dubh inghean Dubhghaill. Blanket permission to conflict with name.

Eugenia Canossa. Name and device. Argent, a double rose gules between three mullets vert, a bordure azure.

This name combines Spanish and Italian; this is one step from period practice.

Please instruct the submitter to draw the mullets larger.

Freygerðr in spaka. Device. Per chevron sable and purpure, a needle fesswise reversed argent and a unicorn passant contourny Or.

Jacob Sparrow. Name.

This submission raised a number of questions. The first questions were whether this name conflicted with Jack Sparrow, the name of a prominent character in the "Pirates of the Caribbean" movies, and, if so, whether the name Jack Sparrow was important enough to protect from conflict. If the names do not conflict, there is still a question of whether the similarity of the names is either obtrusively modern or presumptuous.

Rules for Submissions V.1.a.i Given Names says "Two given names are significantly different only if they differ significantly in sound and appearance. Irrespective of differences in sound and appearance, a given name is not significantly different from any of its diminutives when they are used as given names." Jack and Jacob are significantly different in sound and spelling, so we need to determine whether Jack is a diminutive of Jacob. To answer this question, we must look at the rather complicated history of the name Jacob. The given name Jacob arose in English (and other languages) as a vernacular form of Latin Jacobus; Jacobus or Jacomus was used in Latin to render the name of the New Testament disciple who is now known in English as James. The French cognate of James is Jaques or Jacques, which in turn became Jack, Jake, and Jakes in English; Reaney & Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames, s.n. James says that "James is occasionally found in the 12th and 13th centuries, sometimes alternating with Jack or its diminutives Jackamin." It is clear that Jacobus is a Latinization of James and that Jack is a diminutive of James, but we lack clear evidence that Jack was used as diminutive of Jacob in our period. Lacking evidence that Jack is a diminutive of Jacob in our period, we will give the submitter the benefit of the doubt. Thus Jacob Sparrow does not conflict with Jack Sparrow, as the given names look and sound significantly different. Since the names do not conflict, we need not consider at this time whether the movie character is important enough to protect from conflict.

The remaining question was whether the submission falls under RfS VI.4 Other Presumptuous Names which says that "Some names not otherwise forbidden by these rules are nevertheless too evocative of widely known and revered protected items to be registered." While it is clear from the comments that this name is indeed evocative of Jack Sparrow and that Jack Sparrow is widely known, the commentary was not unanimous that the name was either too evocative or that the movie character is 'revered'. As Effrick neyn Kennyeocht put it:

[The name] isn't going to grab anybody by the scruff of the neck and bring them into the twenty-first century (or even 20th). If ever there was a non-medieval but SCA-compatible figure, it is the fantasy pirate Jack Sparrow.

We concede that the name may remind some people of the 21st century movie character. But we further agree that this is not sufficient for the name to fall under RfS VI.4, and so we are registering the name.

Marguerite fitz William. Name.

Misty of Madrone. Holding name and device. Vert, a lion dormant and on a chief wavy Or three suns sable.

Submitted under the name Rauðkinn eyverska Starradottir, that name was returned on the May 2008 LoAR.

Salia d'eschele. Device. Azure, a sea-panther erect argent spotted of diverse tinctures finned and incensed Or within a bordure wavy argent.

This is clear of the device of Colin de Wyndmere, Azure, a sea lion erect and a chief nebuly argent. There is a CD for the change from a chief nebuly to a bordure wavy. Given the differences between lions, which are beasts, and panthers, which are monsters, and the fact that the latter are both spotted and incensed, we are granting a CD for the difference between a sea-panther and a sea-lion.

Summits, Principality of the. Order name Order of the Grail of the Summits (see RETURNS for other order name).

The principality has permission to conflict with Compagnie du Graal, registered to Giovanni di Sieni in January 2000.

The question was raised whether this conflicted with the Grail Knights, the lead characters in Arthurian literature. This question was also raised with Giovanni's submission, when it was ruled:

This was pended to discuss whether a literary reference to the Knights of the Grail was important enough to protect. While I received little commentary, the evidence indicates that it is not. It is also true that there is a tradition of naming orders after important legendary artifacts, the most notable being the Order of the Golden Fleece. We therefore believe that such while such [sic] an order may imply a group intending to emulate the Arthurian knights, barring any notable actual Orders of the Grail, we must assume that they are not pretending to be the Arthurian knights. [Giovanni di Sienna, 01/00, A-Outlands]

No new evidence was provided to support the protection of the Knights of the Grail now, and so the submitted name may be registered.

Summits, Principality of the. Order name Order of the Bezant and badge. (Fieldless) On a chalice azure five bezants in annulo.

Summits, Principality of the. Badge. (Fieldless) A chalice within and conjoined to an annulet argent.

There was a question of whether this conflicts with the device for Elinor du Pont, Per chevron sable and vert, a goblet within a bordure argent, and that of Frederic Badger, Sable, a chalice within an orle argent. In each case, there is a CD for fieldlessness, but there was a question as to whether there was another CD. Precedent says:

[Azure, a sun within an orle argent] The device is clear of ... Azure, an estoile of eight rays within an annulet and a bordure all argent. Even though an orle looks like an annulet on a round field, they are nonetheless separate charges: if this were drawn on the standard shield shape the difference would be given automatically and it is unfair to penalize the drawing when it is forced to be circular by administrative requirements. [Taliesin de Morlet, 03/01, R-Caid] [returned for a different conflict]

We are extending this standard to also apply to a bordure. Properly drawn bordures follow the edge of the field. Considering a bordure to be equivalent to an annulet on a fieldless badge merely because it may be displayed on a roundel would, in our opinion, unfairly penalize submitters.

This is therefore clear of both Elinor and Frederick's armory, as each has a second CD for the change in type from a bordure or orle to an annulet, even when the bordure/orle is drawn on a circular display area.

Talentus del Albero. Name and device. Per chevron purpure semy of escarbuncles and argent, in base a tree blasted and eradicated sable.

The following items have been returned for further work

May 2008

Qoyor Singqortai. Device. Gules, two falcons close addorsed regardant argent.

This device is returned for a redraw of the birds. As emblazoned, the falcons are in trian aspect. In addition, they are drawn so large that they appear to be walking up the side of the shield; on resubmission they should be drawn smaller. Either problem may have been sufficient grounds for return; the combined problems are definitely sufficient grounds for return.

Rauðkinn eyverska Starradottir. Name.

This name consists of three bynames and no given name in violation of RfS III.2.a, which says "A personal name must contain a given name and at least one byname." The name Rauðkinn was documented as a descriptive byname. The submitter provided some examples of Old Norse names found both as descriptive bynames and given names. However, we do not believe these examples are sufficient to support Rauðkinn as a given name. Metron Ariston explains:

The problem, as I see it, is that, while some Old Norse names do appear both as given names and as bynames, the evidence that the given names are derived from the meaningful bynames rather than constructed from a pool of dithematic components does not seem to have been established. Given that certain components appear to have gone into the name pool in Germanic languages fairly early on, many of them no longer should be interpreted as having intelligible meaning in Old Norse just as in Gothic or Old English. Was someone who bore the name Álfgeirr really thought of as "Elf Spear" or Rauðúlfr as "Red Wolf"? I suspect not. What is really needed is some evidence that both parts of the constructed name were used as elements in the given name pool in Old Norse. With the "red" part of the name, there is no problem since one can point to several instances from Geirr Bassi alone both as a stand-alone element (Rauðr) and as the first element in a dithematic name (Rauðbj{o,}rn, Rauðúlfr). However, I have been able to find no instances where kinn or any clearly cognate form is used in the Norse given name pool (or in any of the equivalent Germanic languages either at this point). As a result I would not consider this a reasonable given name construction. (Incidentally, while I find the runic lexicon used so heavily in the submitter's documentation to be an invaluable resource, I also tend to use it very carefully both because so many of the forms are readings filled in on the basis of known lexical forms to make sense of broken inscriptions and because so many of the inscriptions are highly structured memorials whose conventions are not nearly as well determined at this point as, for instance, those of Greek grave stelae or Latin curse tablets upon which we can rely for less well-attested name forms in those languages.

As we know of no Old Norse name similar in sound and appearance to Rauðkinn, we are unable to replace it with a registerable name. Therefore, we are forced to return this name.

June 2008

Mairghread inghean Uilleim. Name.

This conflicts with Mairghread inghean Uilleim.

Sina di Andreas Valori. Name.

This violates RfS III.1.a, Linguistic Consistency, by combining Italian di with Latinized Andreas in the same phrase. We would change the byname to the wholly Italian di Andrea_ Valori, using the usual Italian vernacular of Andreas, but the submitter does not allow major changes. Changing the language of an element is a major change, so we are forced to return the name.

July 2008

Arion the Wanderer. Badge. (Fieldless) A trident sable.

This device is returned for conflict with a badge for the Barony of Marinus, Argent chaussé per pale azure and vert, a trident sable, reblazoned elsewhere on this LoAR. There is but a single CD for the field.

Kaldor, Canton of. Branch name.

This was an appeal of the branch's previous submission, identical to this, which was returned on the July 2007 LoAR:

Aural conflict with Cawdor Castle, the location where "murder most foul" took place in Shakespeare's Macbeth. This place is worthy of protection.

The appeal argued that the "rejection of the proposed name seems arbitrary, based as it is on an aural association with a fictional castle in Macbeth that is mentioned only once in the play and has no popular pull or recognition" and further that the return was inconsistent with the recent registrations of Shire of Bosenberg, which is the name of an actual city and an actual mountain in Germany; Shire of Radburne, which is the name of a real city in New Jersey and aurally conflicts with Redburn, the name of a novel by Herman Melville; Canton of Readstan, which is an aural conflict with Redstan, a novel by Robert Hay; and Canton of Brokenbridge, which conflicts with the name of a book by Lynne Banks and a 2006 movie.

Unfortunately, this appeal is based on a number of misconceptions about the original return and about our standards for protection of non SCA-names.

First, Castle Cawdor cited in the original return is not a fictional place; it is a real world location, first mentioned in 1454, the seat of Clan Caldor and the current residence of the Dowager Countess Cawdor.

Second, not all non-SCA names are important enough to protect from conflict. The Administrative Handbook III.A outlines which names are protected by the College of Arms from conflict; the only ones which can apply to a branch name are III.A.5 Names of Significant Geographical Locations Outside the Society, III.A.6 Names of Significant Geographical Locations from Literary Sources, III.A.7 Trademarked Names, etc., III.A.8 Orders of Chivalry, Heraldic Titles, Organizations, etc., and III.A.9 Name Used by the Submitter Outside the Society. Note that none of these include names of novels or movies: SCA submissions do not conflict with movie or novel titles because such titles are generally not important enough to protect from conflict. Some titles of movies or novels are so well known that reference to them can result in a submission being obtrusively modern, but this issue is separate from the issue of conflict, and is not the case with the books and movie titles cited in the appeal.

Concerning the other registrations cited in the appeal, we noted that III.A.5 says:

A geographical location will be considered significant if it is associated with important administrative, social, political or military events (e.g., a capital city, the site of a major treaty or battle, etc.).

The consensus of the commenters at the time of registration was that the real-world Bosenberg and the various places named Redburn(e) or Radburn(e) were not considered important enough to protect from conflict. Therefore, there is no inconsistency between the registrations of those branch names and the July 2007 return of Kaldor, and we are upholding the previous return.

Additionally, no petition of support was provided for this appeal. The Administrative Handbook IV.C.5 Evidence of Support says that "[s]ubmissions involving the branch name or arms of an active branch must include evidence of support for the action on the part of a majority of the active members of the branch." Even if the appeal had been acceptable, we could not register this name without a petition of support.

We'd like to note that the addition of some distinguishing adjective to Kaldor would clear the conflict with Cawdor. Appropriate distinguishing adjectives include one of any of the groups New/Old, East/West, North/South, Great/Little, Upper/Middle/Lower/Nether. For examples of these constructions, see Watts, Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, s.nn. Alresford, Asby, Aston, Barford, Barrington, Barsham, Barton, Beckham, Bedfont, Berkhamsted, Blakenham, Bradley, Brent, Bridgford, and elsewhere.

August 2008

Summits, Principality of the. Award name Award of the Gryphon's Paw.

This is being returned because it does not follow any of the known meta-patterns for order or award names (as outlined on the August 2005 Cover Letter). Though the name was justified on the LoI as following the "heraldic charge" meta-pattern, while griffins are period heraldic charges, no evidence was provided that their paws were either period heraldic charges or are compatible with period heraldic charges. It is unlikely that such evidence could be provided; separated from the rest of the griffin, a "griffin's paw" will either be an eagle's jambe or a lion's jambe.

LIONS BLOOD ACTIONS

These items will be forwarded to Laurel, and are tentatively scheduled to be decided on in March and April of 2009, respectively.

September

Aodh Deoradhán. Badge Change, New. Per bend sinister dovetailed sable and vert.

Old Item: (Fieldless) A comet palewise sable bearded vert, the estoile charged with a lower case uncial "a" Or, to be released.

Argento Brunelli. Name & Device, New. Azure, an anchor fouled of its chain and on an embattled chief argent an arrow fesswise reversed azure.

Bjorn Styrkarsson. Name & Device, New. Per fess, sable and argent, a bear rampant with three sheaves of arrows counterchanged.

Name and Device forwarded to Laurel with a request for a note to artist to draw the sheaves of arrows smaller, allowing everything to move where it's supposed to be as the fess line should be in the center of the field and not slightly above it.

Brighid of Geurnsey. Order Name, New. (Fieldless) On a crescent azure a pale Or.

The submitter's name was registered in July of 1994 as Brighid of Garnsey.

Cormacc ua Néill. Device, Resubmission to Laurel. Purpure, a ram's head cabossed and in chief two shamrocks argent.

Paperwork looks purpure to me at several different angles...

Dietrich Eckhard von Katzenburg. Badge, New. Or, between two bendlets azure three trees blasted and eradicated sable.

Eva van den Berg. Name, New.

Geoffrey Albryght. Device, Resubmission to Kingdom. Per bend sinister argent and sable, a bend sinister gules cotised between a dragon contourny and a tree eradicated all counterchanged.

Leiðólfr Kvigarson. Name, New.

There should be an accent in Kvígarson or the accent in Leiðólfr needs to be dropped since Old Norse names either consistently used accents or they did not throughout the name. It's our hope that someone at the Laurel level will have the experience to know which would be more acceptable.

Leiðólfr Kvigarson. Badge, New. Argent, a tower azure over a base wavy sable.

Lianor de Najera. Name & Device, New. Argent, a coney courant to sinister and on a chief azure two crescents Or.

Marguerite fitz William. Device, Resubmission to Kingdom. Or, a natural panther statant contourny sable, on a chief engrailed vert, three plates argent.

Mary Ostler. Device, New. Per fess ermine and purpure, a turnip proper.

Commentary seemed torn on whether the turnip on this submission was proper or per fess with an unblazonable partition line. Pecedents show the following for turnips: Proper for a turnip is the top half of the turnip purpure and the bottom half argent (with a somewhat wavy line of division) with vert leaves; neither the purpure nor the argent should predominate. [Ysabelot Clarisse, 02/06, A-An Tir]

After much debate (including Lions Blood running her finger along the submission form to see that the line of division is somewhat wavy) it was decided to forward this device on to Laurel for a ruling. The citing of the badge of Marion Fitzthomas being registered as (Fieldless) a turnip per fess indented purpure and argent and not a turnip proper was due to the leaves being nearly nonexistent, but the turnip's division clearly the heraldic per fess indented line. The leaves in this submission are clearly visible and to say the line of division is not somewhat wavy would mean having an understanding of Laurel's definition of "somewhat" is.

Otto Vogt. Name & Device, New. Per bend sinister sable and gules, a garb argent and a bordure argent semy of wolves' heads erased sable.

Ronan mac Carthaich. Name & Device, New. Vert, a double-arched bridge throughout argent masoned sable between three mermaids and a stag's head couped argent.

Styrkarr Jarlskald. Name & Device, New. Counter-ermine A wyvern Rampant argent In chief three mullets of eight points, argent.

Although the documentation cited may not be enough to show the surname as a surname and not an actual title. Lions Blood does not have the resources to add to the documentation and no commentary was forthcoming before a decision had to be made.

Device is being forwarded to Laurel although the posture of the Wyvern is confusing. It cannot be rampant as only quadrupeds can ramp. It looks to be somewhere between couchant and sejant erect. As a Wyvern's legs seem to be closer to the middle of the body than to either the front or the back in other examples it makes it harder to pinpoint an exact posture for this one. It was decided this is a question for Laurel.

October

Dietrick Eckhart van Katzenburg. Device, New. Per pale vert and sable, a catamount passant Or between three edelweiss flowers argent seeded Or.

Gosfrei Kempe. Device, New. Or, a quadrant gules.

Gosfrei Kempe. Badge, New. Per pale gules and Or, two chevronels counterchanged.

Romana della Fonte. Name, New.

Veronica Apollonia Simonetta d'Este. Name & Device, New. Per chevron gules and purpure, four fleurs-de-lys in cross Or.

William Richard Drake. Badge, New. (Fieldless) an eagle's head couped impaled by a rapier inverted, argent.

Wyewood, Shire of. Badge, New. (Fieldless) a shakefork per pale azure and Or.

Wyewood, Shire of. Badge, New. (Fieldless) a shakefork azure.

These items are being returned for further work

September

• Bitter End, Shire of. Badge, New. Sable, a mullet of eight points elongated to chief and to base Or.

This device is being returned for conflict with at least 16 different pieces of registered armory. Suggest a conflict check be done before resubmitting.

Dietrich Eckhard von Katzenburg. Badge, New. (Fieldless) On an oak leaf vert an edelweiss argent seeded Or.

Returned for conflict with Eleri of Nefyn (February 1992): (Fieldless) On an oak leaf vert a hand argent. One Clear Difference for fieldless but not a second Clear Difference between the argent tertiary charges of the edelweiss and the hand. There is also a style problem with the edelweiss having a petal going past the oak leaf so that it's not completely 'on' the leaf but it's not an overall charge either. Suggest the submitter use crayola markers for resubmission as green is not always stable in printer or copier ink and can result in a return for unidentifiable tincture as the green will gray out over time.

Leiðólfr Kvigarson. Household Name, New. Black Water Keep, House of.

Returned for conflict with Shire of Blackwater Keep - branch-name registered in May of 2005 (via the Outlands). Submitter also should be made aware of the Shire of Blackwater - branch-name registered in February of 2005 (via AEthelmearc).

October

Veronica Apollonia Simonetta d'Este. Badge, New. Per pale gules and Purpure, a fleur-de-lys Or.

Returned for conflict with France: (Fieldless) A fleur-de-lis Or. There is only the one CD for changing the field.

The following submissions received for the November and December Internal Letters are being returned for administrative reasons.

None.

NEW SUBMISSIONS

1: Aleyn Wykington - Resub Device

Azure, on a plate between three mullets argent a hawk rising sable.

The submitter's branch is Cragmere.

The submitter's name was registered in August of 2008.

His previous device submission of Azure, on a plate between three mullets argent a hawk [something] sable was returned by Kingdom at the same time for redrawing of the hawk into a blazonable posture. Also mentioned at the time was a possible conflict with Thomas von Wörth: Azure, on a plate between four mullets, two and two, argent an owl sable as well as potential conflicts with several other unspecified pieces of armory.

2: Aron the Sinister - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• Meaning (Aron the Left Handed (scribe)) most important.

The submitter's branch is Madrone.

The submitter will accept any changes, cares most about the meaning of his name (Aron the Left Handed (scribe)) and desires a masculine name. He expresses no interest in having his name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name.

<Aron> is found at http://www.british-history.ac.uk/ [Website is "British History Online"; direct URL to list of Mayors and Officials is http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=48213&strquery=list%20of%20officials - Lí Ban] in Chapter XII: Sheriffs and Bailiffs of Glamorgan and Morganwg, dated to 1299 in the name Aron ap Howel. Chapter XIII: Glossary has "Aron, Arund. A Welsh male personal name. (It has no connection with Hebrew Aaron.)"

<the Sinister> is not documented. The submitter includes the following note: "If the Latin byname "Sinister" cannot be registered, I will accept the Welsh byname "Wyth".

<Wyth> is found in Tangywystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's "A Simple Guide to Constructing 13th Century Welsh Names" at http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/tangwystyl/welsh13.html in the section entitled "Bynames Based On A Personal Nickname." The entry is as follows:

"[Chwith] left-handed, clumsy With, Whith, Wyth"

Photocopies of the above articles are included with this submission.

The device form has the following note: "The most critical element of this device is the griffin holding a quill in its left foreclaw. The griffin's posture, color and the color of the field and border can be changed to enable the device to pass. The preferred colors are green and gold."

2: Aron the Sinister - New Device

Vert, a bordure or, a griffin passant contourney or, maintaining in sinister foreclaw a quill pen argent.

3: Christopher Hawkwood - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• No major changes.
• Sound (similar to desired name) most important.
• Language (Late-Period English) most important.
• Culture (Late-Period English) most important.

The submitter's branch is Saint Bunstable.

The submitter will not accept major changes to his name and cares most about the sound (similar to desired name) and language and/or culture (Late-Period English) of his name. He desires a masculine name. He expresses no interest in having his name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name.

<Christopher> is found in multiple late-period English sources. Specifically, it is listed in heraldry.sca.org's name articles "16th Century Gloucestershire Names" by Aryanhwy merch Catmael [URL is http://heraldry.sca.org/names/english/late16.html, header is Christopher -- Lí Ban] with 3 instances of the given spelling, and "English Given Names from the 16th and Early 17th C. Marriage Records" by Aryanhwy merch Catmael [URL is http://heraldry.sca.org/names/english/parishes/parishes.html, header is Christopher -- Lí Ban] with 116 instances of the given spelling.

<Hawkwood> is discussed in the attached Saint Gabriel report #1095, where they state "<Hawkwood> is a late period spelling of an English surname, found as <Haukwood> and <Hawkwoode> circa 1470 and <Haukewood> circa 1560."

Photocopies of the Academy of Saint Gabriel report are included with this submission.

4: Heinrich Wilhelm - Resub Device

Per bend argent and azure, five lozenges bend-sinisterwise in bend between two eagles displayed counterchanged.

The submitter's branch is Madrone.

The submitter's name was registered in June of 2008.

The submitter's previous device submission of Per bend azure and argent between two eagles five lozenges bendwise sinister in bend counterchanged was returned by Kingdom for redrawing to make the eagles secondary charges in March of 2008.

His previous device submission of the same blazon was returned administratively by Kingdom in April of 2007 for insufficient number of copies of forms.

5: Sina di Andrea Valori - Resub Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• No major changes.

The submitter's branch is Lions Gate.

The submitter's previous submission of Sina di Andreas Valori was returned by Laurel in June of 2008 for violation of RfS III.1.a, Linguistic Consistency, by combining Italian di with Latinized Andreas in the same phrase.

The submitter will not accept major changes to her name and desires a feminine name. She expresses no preference should her name have to be changed and expresses no interest in having her name changed to be authentic. She will allow the creation of a holding name.

<Sina> is from http://www.ellipsis.cx/%7Eliana/names/italian/imolafemalph.html [Article is "14th C. Italian Names from Imola" by Aryanhwy merch Catmael; name is found with a frequency of 1; no photocopy of title page/author was included, only single page with the name. - Lí Ban]

<Andrea> is from http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/venice14/venice14given.html#table [Article is "Fourteenth Century Venetian Personal Names" by Arval Benicoeur and Talan Gwynek - Lí Ban]

<Valori> is from http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/tratte/doc/SURNAM1.html [Article is "Online Tratte of Office Holders 1282-1532" edited by David Herlihy, R. Burr Litchfiled, Anthony Molho and Roberto Barducci; source URL is http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/tratte/. As above, no title/author page was included in the photocopy, only the single page with the name. - Lí Ban]

An Tir OSCAR counts: 2 New Names, 1 New Device. This gives 3 new items. Resub counts: 1 Resub Name, 2 Resub Devices. This is a total of 3 resubmissions on this letter, for a total of 6 actions.

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