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An Tir IL dated 2008-03-02 (Jump to Submissions)

Unto Christopher Black Lion and the esteemed members of the An Tir College of Heralds to whom this missive comes, Li Ban ingen Echtigeirn, Boar Herald, sends greetings and felicitations.

The following items are presented for your consideration.

Commentary on this letter is due on April 10th, 2008.

1: Ada Thomas Heilyn - Resub Name

The submitter's branch is Ravensley.

The submitter's previous name submission of <Erin Ada Thomas Heilyn> was returned by Kingdom in April of 2007 inclusion of the element <Erin> (ruled an unregisterable modern name since 1981); it could not be dropped due to the submitter not allowing major changes.

The submitter's previous device submission of Gules, two angels respectant argent sustaining in chief a heart Or was returned at the same time for lack of a name and for lack of identifying details on the angels.

The submitter will allow any changes, expresses no preference as to gender or should her name have to be changed. She expresses no interest in having her name changed to be authentic. She will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary.

All three elements of the submitter's chosen name are found in Tamgwystyl verch Morgant Glasvryn's "A Simple Guide to Constructing 13th Century Welsh Names" in the section detailing men's names. <Ada> under the header <Adam>, <Thomas> and <Heilyn> are both headers in the same section.

The submitter includes the following note on the copy of the article: "In my persona Afaf Thomas is my father, Ada Cadugan is married to my father, Heilyn is my husband's name. My name is Ada Thomas Heilyn."

On the submission form is the following note: "Told at 12th night to drop the first name `Erin' rest of documents enclosed".

1: Ada Thomas Heilyn - Resub Device

Gules two angels argent Holding up a heart or.

2: Ada Thomas Heilyn - Resub Badge

No blazon proposed.

The submitter's branch is Ravensley.

The submitter's name may be found elsewhere on this letter.

The submitter's previous submission of Gules, in bend a hummingbird rising to sinister sable and an angel statant argent maintaining between them a heart Or was returned by Kingdom in April of 2007 for lack of a name with which to forward it, contrast problems for the hummingbird and lack of detail on the angel.

3: Alasdar Conner Drake - Resub Device

Per Pale, vert and azure, two natural tigers Or striped sable combatant, on a chief Or a lion couchant gules.

The submitter's branch is Rivers Bend.

The submitter's name was registered in August of 2007.

The submitter's previous submission of Per pale vert and azure a natural tiger Or marked sable and a lion Or was returned by Kingdom in April of 2007 for marshalling and for violation of the `sword and dagger' rule.

4: Aleyn Wykington - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• Client requests authenticity for 12th-14th century English.
• Language (English) most important.

The submitter's branch is Cragmere.

The submitter will accept any changes, desires a masculine name, cares most about the language and/or culture of his name and wishes his name changed to be authentic for 12th to 14th century English language/culture and time period. He will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary.

<Aleyn> (1440) is from Withycombe, Elizabeth Gidley. The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names, page 4, header Alan.

<Wykington> (1254) is from Ekwall, Eilert. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-names, page unspecified, header Wigginton.

4: Aleyn Wykington - New Device

Azure one a plate a hawk plummeting sable, three stars two and one.

5: Alys Lakewood - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• No changes.

The submitter's branch is Tir Bannog.

The submitter will not accept any changes and desires a feminine name. She expresses no preference if her name must be changed and does not wish her name to be changed to be authentic. She will allow the creation of a holding name.

<Alys> is found in "English Names from Pre-1600 Brass Inscriptions" at http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/brasses/ with 4 examples from 1503, Kent. It is also found in "Feminine Given Names in the Registers of the Church of Saint Mary's Dymock" at http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/mari/dymock/dym_women.htlm with 68 examples, 1538/9, Gloucestershire, England; "16th Century Gloucestershire Names" at http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/english/late16.html with one example from Quedgeley parish; "Index of Names in the 1541 Subsidy Roll of London" at http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/english/london1541.html with one example from Bassishaw Ward; and "Omskirk Feminine Names, from christenings" at http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/english/ormskirk/femchristen.html with one example from Alice Christenings: Alys Hatton bast 9 May 1560.

The notes on <Lakewood> are as follows:

No example of period (or non-period) byname "Lakewood" found

No examples of period English bynames with "Lake-

structure, although variants of the word Lake were used alone or as the second half a locative byname i.e., Leyke, 1582 London http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/english/engsurlondon1582a-m.html; i.e., Westlake, 1490 Bershire http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/brasses

Multiple examples of period English bynames with "-wood" structure found i.e., Inwood, 1586 Surrey http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/brasses/; i.e., Norwoode, 1541 London http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/english/engsurlondon1541.html.

Also included is the following:

Lockwood (2 examples in the wards Cheape, Cordwaynerstrete, London) from "Index of Names in the 1582 Subsidy Roll of London: Surnames of English men & women" http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/english/engsurlondon/1582a-m.html

Lockwoode (redmarshall Marriages 1652) from "Surnames in Durham and Northumberland, 1521-1615" http://www.s-gabriel.org/nmaes/juetta/parish/surnames.html; GEN UKI (UK and Ireland Genealogy) hosts these parish registers transcribed by George Bell.

Lokwood (1 example in the ward Aidgate, London) from "Index of Names in the 1541 Subsidy Roll of London: Surnames of English men and women" http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/english/engsurlondon1541.html

Lockwood Name Meaning and Origin from http://www.ancestry.com/facts/Lockwood-name-meaning.ashx

"English; habitational name froma place in West Yorkshire, probably named in Old English as `encloseure' (see Lock) + wudu `wood'. It seems likely that all present-day bearers of the name descend from a single family which originated in this place. There is another place of the same name in Cleveland, first recorded in 1273 as Locwyt, from Old English loc (a) + Old Norse vidr `wood'. `brake', but it is not clear whether it has give rise to a surname. Dictionary of American Family Names. Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508137-4"

The following note is included in the documentation section of the forms:

If <Lakewood> is not accepted as a byname, I have included <Lockwood> or <Lockwoode> as acceptable byname alternatives.

No photocopies of the articles were included with this submission; all information was compiled into a single document.

6: Calandra de Silva - Resub Device

Sable, a bend between two bees Or.

The submitter's branch is False Isle.

The submitter's name was forwarded to Laurel in August of 2007.

The submitter's previous submission of the same blazon was returned by Kingdom in August of 2007 for conflict with Matthew of Marinus: Sable, a bend between two mullets of eight points Or.

The submitter includes a letter of permission to conflict from Matthew of Marinus as follows:

"I, [mundane name redacted], Known in the SCA as Matthew of Marinus do give [mundane name redacted], known in the SCA as Calandra de Silva, permission for Her armory: "Sable, a bend between two bees Or" to look similar to but not identical to, My armory: "Sable, a bend between two mullets of eight points Or". I understand that this permission cannot be withdrawn once [mundane name redacted]'s armory is registered."

It is signed by [mundane name redacted] and dated September 5, 2007.

At the bottom of the letter, the submitter penned the following note: "[mundane name redacted] is my maiden name. [mundane name redacted] is my married name."

7: Dietrich von Kleeve - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• Language (German, 16th century) most important.
• Culture (German, 16th century) most important.

The submitter's branch is Myrgan Wood.

The submitter will accept any changes, desires a masculine name and cares most about the language and/or culture of his name, which is specified as being German 16th century. He expresses no interest in having his name changed to be authentic. He will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary.

<Dietrich> is from "German Names from Rottweil, Baden-Württemberg, 1441" at http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/german/rottweil1441.html.

<von Kleeve> is a locative name referring to the German city of Kleve. Spelling `Kleeve' is taken from a 16th century map of Europe, but the submitter has no reference as to which map.

No photocopies of articles (or maps) were included with this submission.

7: Dietrich von Kleeve - New Device

No blazon proposed.

8: Edward Cire of Greymoor - New Badge

(Fieldless) A scorpion argent.

The submitter's branch is Wyewood.

The submitter's name was registered in June of 1985. The submitter already has one device and one badge registered.

9: Elspeth Dubh inghean Dubhghaill - Resub Device

Per saltire azure and purpure, a cross patonce argent and a chief embattled argent.

The submitter's branch is Vinjar.

The submitter's name was registered in October of 2007.

The submitter's previous device submission of Per saltire purpure and azure, a cross patonce argent was returned by Kingdom in January of 2008 for conflict with Stephen de Huyn: (Fieldless) A cross of Santiago argent.

10: Elspeth Dubh inghean Dubhghaill - New Blanket Permission to Conflict

The submitter's branch is Vinjar.

The submitter's name was registered in October of 2007.

The text of the Blanket Permission to Conflict is as follows:

"I, (mundane name redacted), known in the SCA as Elspeth Dubh inghean Dubhghaill, waive the full protection of my registered name "Elspeth Dubh inghean Dubhghaill". I grant permission to any future submitter to register a name that is not identical to my registered name. I understand that this permission can be withdrawn by written notice to the Laurel Sovereign of Arms, but that conflicting items registered while it is in force will remain registered."

It is signed "(mundane name redacted)" and dated Feb 7, 2008.

11: Eugenia Canossa - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.

The submitter's branch is Ravensley.

The submitter will accept any changes and desires a feminine name. She expresses no preference should her name have to be changed, nor does she express any interest in having her name be changed to be authentic. She will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary.

Eugenia is a saint's name and was used in late period Spain (in the name of Isabel Clara Eugenia, a daughter of Phillip II). Eugenia is found in the Golden Legend (Legenda Auroa). Eugenia was a Roman woman, daughter of the Duke of Alexandria. (http://www.catholic-forum.com/saintS/golden140.htm). [URL does not function. The two pages included with this submission in support of <Eugenia> contain details of the saint's life and an image of her icon, but neither page contains any dates, though the page with the image may have before printing/photocopying; there is some text that is cut off. - Lí Ban]

Canossa is the name of a town in Italy made famous by the walk of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV in 1077 - she'd really like Canessor but we could not document it.

Canossa is an unmarked locative based on the name of a former castle of Matilda, Countess of Tuscany, visited by King Henry IV of Germany and Pope Gregory VII in 1077. (http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03298.htm). [URL does not function. Correct URL is http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03298a.htm. -- Lí Ban] It is also found in Eternal Rome - Showerman [sp.? - Documentation is handwritten and difficult to read. - Lí Ban]. New Haven - Yale University Press, 1925. Page 343. [No photocopies from this book are included. - Lí Ban]

11: Eugenia Canossa - New Device

Argent a rose Gules within a bordure Azure. 1 star in each corner vert

12: Eugenia Canossa - New Badge

Argent, a Rose Gules within a bordure Azure 3 stars vert

The submitter's branch is Ravensley.

The submitter's name may be found elsewhere on this letter.

13: Freygredr inn spaka - Resub Device

Per chevron sable and purpure a needle fesswise argent and a unicorn passant contourny Or.

The submitter's branch is Borealis.

The submitter's name was registered in November of 2005 as <Freygerðr in spaka>.

The submitter's previous submission of the same blazon was returned by Kingdom in April of 2007 for unidentifiability of the unicorn. This was returned previously by Laurel (November of 2005) for redrawing of the field division and the unicorn.

14: Jacob Sparrow - Resub Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• No major changes.
• Language (English, 16th century) most important.
• Culture (British) most important.

The submitter's branch is Bitter End.

The submitter's previous submission of <Jacob the Upended> was returned by Kingdom in January of 2008 for the element <Upended> being out of period. As no major changes were allowed, this submission had to be returned.

The submitter will not accept major changes; desires a masculine name; and cares most about the language and/or culture of his name, which he states to be "British, sp. English 16th century".

The following page of information is included with this submission:

"Given Name

"Jacob: 15th Century English

"Listed at http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/agincourt/ as compiled from another source, two instances of the name occur in the list as posted on the website. Link to his site posted by An Tir College of Heralds website, specifically at address http://www.antirheralds.org/education/education/html.

"Description of web content as posted at above site by author Arval Benicoeur:

" "These two tables in this article conatin the given names from The Agincourt Honor Roll, web-published by Family Chronicle, a magazine for amateur genealogists. Such sources are often not useful for Society name research, since their goals differ from ours, but this particular list appears to be pretty good. It was scanned out of Sir Nicolas Harris, History of the Battle of Agincourt and of the Expedition of Henry the Fifth into France in 1415 to which is added the Roll of the Men at Arms in the English Armory, 3rd edition (London: Johnston & co., 1833). I haven't tracked down a copy of that book in order to check the author's sources."

"Website's references:

"(1) Reaney, P.H., & R.M. Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames (London: Routledge, 1991; Oxford University Press, 1995).

"(2) Withycombe, E.G., The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names, 3rd. ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988).

"Surname

"Sparrow: 16th Century English

"Listed in the alphabetical surnames link available at http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/brasses/, one instance reported and dated 1531.

"Description of web content as posted at above site by author Julian Geodwyn (mka Janell K. Lovelace):

" "Based on data provided by the Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology at Oxford University. This index into the Ashmolean Museum's brass rubbing collection is divided into three sections: surnames, male given names, and female given names. After each name appears a list of all the counties in which the name may be found, using the county abbreviations listed below. The abbreviations are linked to the original WWW pages at the Ashmolean. The data for the earliest use of that name is included in the index next to the county in which it occurs. In front of each name is a number representing the total number of occurrences of the name prior to 1600. In the list of surnames, that number is followed by another number in parentheses representing the number of different parishes in which the name was found. Multiple occurrences of a surname within a single Parish often indicates a family grouping. The list of surnames also includes some place and titular names, with a note in parentheses showing how the name was referenced in the original text, e.g., "Athol (countess of)." Only names which are dated prior to 1600 are included in this index."

"Website's references as listed above."

15: John Wolfstan - New Household Name

Company of the Shattered Lance

• Submitter has no desire as to gender.
• No changes.

The submitter's branch is Blatha an Oir.

The submitter's name was registered in January of 1993.

The submitter will not accept any changes. He doesn't care about the gender of the name, nor does he express a preference should the name need to be changed. He expresses no interest in having the name changed to be authentic. He will allow the creation of a holding name.

The following is quoted from the documentation section of the form:

"Formation of a late period (13-15th century) tournament company in An Tir.

"Please see the attached information sheet."

Said information sheet says the following:

"Company of the Shattered Lance

"Presented and Signed by TRMs Tiernan and Miranda with the official formation of the company at 12th Night AS 42.

"The formation of a new fighting/tournament company in An Tir, the Company of the Shattered Lance, was approved by TRMs Tiernan and Miranda. The company's members are 13th to 15th century knights for the purpose of holding a minimum of one tournament per year in the traditions of tournaments from that time period.

"Members of the Company Present in Court at 12th Night:

"Sir Geurin Valletort de Harfleur

"Sir Aleksii Constantinovich, Baron of Blatha an Oir

"Sir John Wolfstan

"Sir Godric ap Rhys

"Earl Michale de Lacy

"Sir Roland von Bern, Baron of Terra Pomaria

"Members of the Company Unable to be at 12th Night:

"Earl Cire of Gremoor

"Sir Richard Fitzalan, Baron of the Court

"Duke Almaric Blackhart

"The badge of the Company is being submitted with the Group Name request and is emblazoned as follows:

"Fieldless, a tilting spear fracted in two and in saltire Or

"Please contact me for any further questions or problems with the submission…"

What follows is John Wolfstan's phone number and email address. It is signed "John."

No documentation supporting the construction or elements of this name was provided.

16: John Wolfstan - New Badge

(Fieldless) a tilting spear fracted in two and in saltire Or.

The submitter's branch is Blatha an Oir.

The submitter's name was registered in January of 1993.

This badge is jointly owned with Guerin Valletort de Harfleur, whose name was registered in January of 2005.

17: Marguerite fitz William - New Name

• Submitter desires a female name.
• No major changes.
• Language (Norman) most important.
• Culture (Norman) most important.

The submitter's branch is Aquaterra.

The submitter will not accept major changes, desires a feminine name and cares most about the language and/or culture of her name (Norman). She expresses no interest in having her name be changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name.

Marguerite - found in "An Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris" by Lord Colm Dubh at http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/paris.html. The article lists a "Marguerite la lauendiere" in the "M" section.

Fitz William - this surname appears in P.H. Reaney & R.M. Wilson's "A Dictionary of English Surnames, 2nd Edition" under the heading "Willimas". The entry includes Henry fitz William 1300.

17: Marguerite fitz William - New Device

Or, a panther statant contourny Sable, on a chief vert, three plates

18: Piers Lakewood - New Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• No changes.

The submitter's branch is Tir Bannog.

The submitter will not accept any changes and desires a masculine name. He expresses no preference if his name must be changed, nor does he wish his name changed to be authentic. He will allow the creation of a holding name.

<Piers> is found in "English Names from Pre-1600 Brass Inscriptions" at http://www.sca/org/heraldry/laurel/names/brasses/men.html with two examples from 1390, Lincolnshire; the poem "Vision of Piers Plowman", circa 1372-1389 in "The Norton Anthology of English Literature, fourth edition", ISBN 0-393-95048-4 PBK; "Faire Names for English Folk: Late Sixteenth Century English Names" at http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/fairnames/, which states "The list of the most common men's names in England stayed pretty nearly constant from the 1530s through 1700, especially the top four names, though the exact order changed a bit… Some additional, slightly less popular names are:… Piers"; as <Pierse> in "Index of Names in the 1582 Subsidy Roll of London" at http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/english/engmasclondon1582.html with one example from Portsoken Ward; and from "Behind the Name: the etymology and history of first names" at http://www.behindthename.com/name/piers which states "Gender: Masculine, Usage: English, Pronounced PEERZ, PEERS. Middle English form of PETER).

The notes on <Lakewood> are as follows:

No example of period (or non-period) byname "Lakewood" found

No examples of period English bynames with "Lake-

structure, although variants of the word Lake were used alone or as the second half a locative byname i.e., Leyke, 1582 London http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/english/engsurlondon1582a-m.html; i.e., Westlake, 1490 Bershire http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/brasses

Multiple examples of period English bynames with "-wood" structure found i.e., Inwood, 1586 Surrey http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/arval/brasses/; i.e., Norwoode, 1541 London http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/english/engsurlondon1541.html.

Also included is the following:

Lockwood (2 examples in the wards Cheape, Cordwaynerstrete, London) from "Index of Names in the 1582 Subsidy Roll of London: Surnames of English men & women" http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/english/engsurlondon/1582a-m.html

Lockwoode (redmarshall Marriages 1652) from "Surnames in Durham and Northumberland, 1521-1615" http://www.s-gabriel.org/nmaes/juetta/parish/surnames.html; GEN UKI (UK and Ireland Genealogy) hosts these parish registers transcribed by George Bell.

Lokwood (1 example in the ward Aidgate, London) from "Index of Names in the 1541 Subsidy Roll of London: Surnames of English men and women" http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/english/engsurlondon1541.html

Lockwood Name Meaning and Origin from http://www.ancestry.com/facts/Lockwood-name-meaning.ashx

"English; habitational name froma place in West Yorkshire, probably named in Old English as `encloseure' (see Lock) + wudu `wood'. It seems likely that all present-day bearers of the name descend from a single family which originated in this place. There is another place of the same name in Cleveland, first recorded in 1273 as Locwyt, from Old English loc (a) + Old Norse vidr `wood'. `brake', but it is not clear whether it has give rise to a surname. Dictionary of American Family Names. Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508137-4"

The following note is included in the documentation section of the forms:

If <Lakewood> is not accepted as a byname, I have included <Lockwood> or <Lockwoode> as acceptable byname alternatives.

No photocopies of the articles were included with this submission; all information was compiled into a single document.

19: Rauokinn eyverska Starradottir - Resub Device

Vert, a lion dormant or, and on a chief way or three suns sable

The submitter's branch is Madrone.

The submitter's name was forwarded to Laurel in January of 2008.

Her previous device submission of Vert, a lion dormant and on a chief wavy Or three suns sable was returned by Kingdom at the same time for redrawing of the wavy line and suns and conflict with Isabella del Bosque: Vert, a lioness dormant guardant and on a chief doubly enarched Or three crosses fleury vert due to the submitter's wavy line not having enough waves.

20: Salia d'eschele - Resub Device

Azure, a sea-panther erect argent, fins Or, within a bordure wavy argent

The submitter's branch is Akornebir.

The submitter's name was forwarded to Laurel in January of 2008.

The submitter's previous device submission of Azure, a sea-panther head to dexter argent finned Or incensed proper within a bordure wavy argent was returned by Kingdom at the same time for having fimbriated flames.

21: Summits, Principality of the - New Order Name

Award of the Gryphon's Paw

• Meaning (as close to the traditional meaning in Summits usage) most important.

The submitter's name was registered in March of 1992.

The submitter will accept any changes and cares most about the meaning of the name (as close to the traditional meaning in Summits usage).

Meta-Pattern: Orders named for heraldic charges.

The gryphon is a heraldic charge dating to 1244. <Gryphon> is a constructed spelling, based on the following argument (courtesy Ursula Loyall): The OED s.v. <griffin>, 1 (http://www.oed/com, subscription required) says that <gryphon> is found from the 1500s onward in the Spellings section. Dated spellings of the word from before 1650 in this entry are: `griffon', c. 1386; `grifphon, girffon, grefoun', c. 1400; `griffoune', c. 1435; `gryffons', 1481; `griphin', 1567; `griffon', 1601; `gryphin', 1620; `gryffoune', ?a1400; `greffons' 1439; `gryffoun', 1460;`griffens'. 1552; `griffin', 1640. This data shows that <y> and <"i"> could be used interchangeably for the first vowel, that <fph>, <ff>, <f>, and <ph> were all possible spellings of the /f/ sound, and that the final vowel could be spelled <o>, <ou>, <"i">, or <e>. Thus, <gryphon> is also plausible as a constructed spelling.

If we cannot use <gryphon>, we would prefer to use the spelling <griffin>.

The OED s.v. paw, n.1. has as the first meaning: "1.a. The foot or claw of a bird; the foot or claw of a dragon. Also in extended use. Obs." The first citation is c. 1330; the first citation for "b. The foot of an animal having claws and pads. Also: the hand of a monkey or ape" is c. 1440. By this meaning, a gryphon has four paws, and a gryphon's paw becomes a reasonable approximation of a heraldic charge, just like a wyverns claw.

The form is signed by William Geoffrey the Rogue, Prince of the Summits, Stephanie of the Sanguine Rose, Princess of the Summits, and Vanyev Betzina, Summits Herald.

22: Summits, Principality of the - New Order Name

Order of the Grail of the Summits

• Meaning (as close to the traditional meaning in Summits usage) most important.

The submitter's name was registered in March of 1992.

The submitter will accept any changes and cares most about the meaning of the name (as close to the traditional meaning in Summits usage).

"Award of the Grael of the Summits

"Meta-Pattern: Orders named for heraldic charges

"About the cup as a heraldic charge. Parker says the following in `A Glossary of Terms Use in Heraldry': "Cup, (old fr. Coupe): the cup was rather a favorite device from the fourteenth century onwards, as shown by several references to it in the Rolls of Edward II, and Edward III. The plain chalice-like cup without a cover was perhaps first emblazoned, such as is found on incised slabs, &c.; but it is sometimes represented in modern heraldry ornamented, as shewn in the drawing of the arms of CANDISH." Of a chalice as a heraldic charge, he says, "Chalice generally drawn in old examples as in the margin, though often with an octangular foot. Azure, a sun in splendour, in base a chalice or; [otherwise a chalice or and in chief a sun] - VASSALL. Azure, two chalices in fesse or [elsewhere blazoned candlesticks]--EMERLE."

"While not blazoned as <grael> specifically, the word is simply another way to describe a cup or chalice and therefore should be a reasonable approximation of a period heraldic charge."

The form is signed by William Geoffrey the Rogue, Prince of the Summits, Stephanie of the Sanguine Rose, Princess of the Summits, and Vanyev Betzina, Summits Herald.

23: Summits, Principality of the - New Order Name

Order of the Bezant

• Meaning (as close to the traditional meaning in Summits usage) most important.

The submitter's name was registered in March of 1992.

The submitter will accept any changes and cares most about the meaning of the name (as close to the traditional meaning in Summits usage).

Meta-Pattern: Orders named for heraldic charges.

The OED s.v. bezant, byzant gives the first instance of a bezant as a heraldic charge in 1486. The first instance of the word meaning "gold coin" is c. 1200. The OED dates the modern spelling, <bezant>, to the 1700s and later. The MED, however, showes several instances where the /s/ sound is represented as a <z> in <besant> and <besants>: <Becauns> 1390, <besauntz> 1400, <besandez> 1440, <besaunz> 1450. The online citation to the MED entry is http://ets.umdl.umich.edu/cgi/m/mec/med-idx?type=id&id=MED4222. It therefore becomes reasonable to consider that <bezant> is a spelling that could have been used in period.

**NOTE** I would mention that we'll accept <bezaunt> as a substitute spelling, because it appears that it is far more popular to follow a <z> mid-word with an <au> rather than an <a>.

The form is signed by William Geoffrey the Rogue, Prince of the Summits, Stephanie of the Sanguine Rose, Princess of the Summits, and Vanyev Betzina, Summits Herald.

24: Summits, Principality of the - New Badge

(Fieldless) A chalice within and conjoined to an annual argent.

The submitter's name was registered in March of 1992.

The form is signed by William Geoffrey the Rogue, Prince of the Summits, Stephanie of the Sanguine Rose, Princess of the Summits, and Vanyev Betzina, Summits Herald.

25: Summits, Principality of the - New Badge

(Fieldless) On a chalice azure five bezants in anullo.

This submission is to be associated with The Order of the Bezant

The submitter's name was registered in March of 1992.

The form is signed by William Geoffrey the Rogue, Prince of the Summits, Stephanie of the Sanguine Rose, Princess of the Summits, and Vanyev Betzina, Summits Herald.

26: Talentus del Albero - Resub Name

• Submitter desires a male name.
• Sound (sounds like Talon) most important.
• Meaning (from the tree, corresponds to a device) most important.

The submitter's branch is Dragon's Laire.

The submitter's previous name submission of <Talentus Artiglio del Fero> was returned by Kingdom in December of 2005 for lack of evidence that <Artiglio> was used as a name in period Italy.

The submitter's previous device submission of Per pall argent, sable and purpure, three claws sable argent and argent was returned at the same time for lack of a name and for unrecognizability of the claws.

The submitter will accept any changes, desires a masculine name and cares most about the sound and meaning of his name (Sound - sounds like Talon; Meaning - From the tree, corresponds to a device). He expresses no interest in having his name changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name if necessary.

<Talentus> is found at http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/pisa/pisa.html [Article is Juliana de Luna's "Masculine Names from Thirteenth Century Pisa" - Lí Ban] with a frequency of 8.

<del Albero> is supported by correspondence with Juliana de Luna as follows:

The submitter: " "Byname/Surname: The above article states that many of the bynames were locative nature [sic] as in "de Spina" meaning `from the ridge'. The byname of "de Albero" means `from the tree'.

Juliana: "The Pisa article is taken from a Latin language document, rather than an Italian language document. As such, it has "de" for everything, rather than the expected Latin form, which would be <dell'Albero> `of the tree' (because Latin doesn't use articles like Romance languages). Curiously, I can find no evidence that such a name was used, though it seems to me not implausible.

"I'd note that <Spina> above may be a placename rather than a generic description (what we call a toponymic); clearer examples of this can be found in the 1427 Catasto: <della Casa> `of the house', <della Torre> `of the tower,;' <del Palagio> `of the palace,' among others. These are taken from "Family names appearing in the Catasto of 1427" (http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/catasto/newsearch/family_names.html), spaceing [sic] and capitalization mine. Note that <del Pino> in particular suggests that "of the tree" is a reasonable byname."

The following note is included in the blazon section of the form: "The escarbuncles in the semy configuration can be made larger to fill the space".

26: Talentus del Albero - Resub Device

No blazon proposed.

An Tir OSCAR counts: 6 New Names, 1 New Household Name, 3 New Order Names, 4 New Devices, 5 New Badges, 1 New Blanket Permission to Conflict. This gives 20 new items. Resub counts: 3 Resub Names, 8 Resub Devices, 1 Resub Badge. This is a total of 12 resubmissions on this letter, for a total of 32 actions.

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