10: Rauokinn eyverska Starradottir - New Name
• Submitter desires a female name.
• No major changes.
• Sound (not specified) most important.
• Language (Norse) most important.
• Culture (Norse) most important.
• Meaning (not specified) most important.
The submitter's branch is Madrone.
The submitter will not accept major changes, desires a feminine name and cares most about the meaning, sound and language/culture of her name. The language is specified as Norse. She expresses no interest in having her name be changed to be authentic and will allow the creation of a holding name.
<rauðkinn> is found on p. 26 in Geirr Bassi Haraldsson. The Old Norse Name. Studia Marklandica I. Olney, MD: Markland Medieval Militia. 1977 as a byname meaning "red-cheek."
<eyverska> is found as a byname meaning "woman from the Orkney Islands" on p. 21 of Geirr Bassi; "Viking Bynames found in the Landnámabók" by Aryanhwy merch Catmael, (http://www.sit.wise.edu/~sfriedemann/names/vikbynames.htm). [URL as given by the submitter does not function; here is the proper URL: http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/norse/vikbynames.html -- Lí Ban]
<Stari> is found in Cleasby, Richard and Guð¬brandr Vigfusson. An Icelandic-English Dictionary. 2nd ed. Oxfore: Clarendon, 1957. P. 589 s.v. starí, and in Lena Peterson. Nordiskt runnamnslexikon. (Dictionary of Names from Old Norse Runic Inscriptions). Språk-och folkminnes-institutet (Institute for Dialectology, Onomastics and Folklore Research) s.n. Stari.
Also included is the following: "My given name that I have chosen is actually a Norse byname. However, I can document the frequent use of by-names as personal names in Old Norse:
(1) There are a large number of Old Norse personal names, both masculine and feminine, which are also in documented use as by-names;
(2) More Old Norse personal names can be shown to exist only as by-names in Old Norse literature, only to appear as personal names in runic inscriptions; and
(3) There are many examples of by-names in Old West Norse (the major source of Geirr Bassi Haraldsson's name info) that appear as personal names in Old East Norse sources, and vice-versa.
Given these points, it is not unreasonable to expect that Rauðkinn might also have been in use as an Old West Norse feminine personal name which was unrecorded, made all the more likely by the relative scarcity of feminine names that have been recorded from Old Norse in comparison to the large number of masculine names. This complies with the Rule for Submission II.3.
In the documentary sources below, the citations are abbreviated as follows:
CV = Cleasby, Richard and Guð¬brandr Vigfusson. An Icelandic-English Dictionary. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon. 1957.
GB = Geirr Bassi Haraldsson. The Old Norse Name. Studia Marklandica I. Olney, MD: Markland Medieval Militia. 1977.
FJ = Fellows-Jensen, Gillian. Scandinavian Personal Names in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire. Copenhagen. Akademisk Forlag. 1968.
NR = Lena Peterson. Nordisk runnamnslexikon. (Dictionary of Names from Old Norse Runic Inscriptions). Språk-och folkminnes-institutet (Institute for Dialectology, Onomastics and Folklore Research).
Auga. The feminine or masculine name Auga is related to the OW. Norse man's by-name Auga and with OW. Norse auga "eye". Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative case form auka. NR s.v. Auga.
Kolbrún. The prefix Kol- is identical with Old Icelandic kol, "coals, black as coal". The second element, -brún, is "brow". This personal name is also found as a by-name. FJ pp. 345; CV pp. 81, 347 s.v. brún, kol, Kolbrún; NR s.v. Kolla.
Kolla. Found in OW. Norse as the by-name Kolla, for which the etymology is uncertain but which may be related to OW. Norse kola "female, woman". Kolla is also found as a short form of feminine names in Kol-. Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative form kola. NR s.v. Kolla
Langlif. Originally a by-name, "long-life". A few instances of Langlif occurring as a personal name appear in Norway after 1200. Found in Denmark as Langliva from c. 1150. May be represented in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Langliuetorp (c. 1100's). GB pp. 13; FJ pp. 184
Lif, Hlif. Originally a by-name. Possibly related to Old Icelandic hlifa, "to give shelter, to cover" and to hlifð, "defence, protection". The form Lif may by Hlif with the initial h lost, or it may be related to Old Icelandic lif, "life'. The name Hlif appears in Landnámabók for Hlíf hestageldr ("horse-gelder") in ch. 27; Hlíf Hrólfsdóttir in ch. 66; and Hlíf Heðinsdóttir in ch. 68. The name Lif appears only in mythology. GB pp. 11; FJ pp. 188; CV pp. 271 s.v. hlifa, hlifð
Ótama. Probably originally a by-name. From the OW. Norse adjective útamr "untamed". Appears as a personal name in the runic nominative form [utaRa]. NR s.v. Ótama
Rjúpa. Geir Bassi Haraldsson identifies this as a feminine personal name. The word is the noun rjúpa, "ptarmigan", and is used in Landnámabók as a woman's by-name. GB pp. 14; CV pp. 501 s.v. rjúpa
Api. Originally a by-name meaning "fool", from OW. Norse api. "ape, foolish person". Possibly found in the Norwegian place-name Apnes. Found in Old Danish as Api. Runic examples include the nominative form abi and the accusative form aba, though these may derive instead from the name Abbi or Æbbi. A hypothetical form, *Appi, is hypothesized from a Danish place name. May occur in the Anglo-Scandinavian placename Apedale (c. 1175). FJ pp. 11 s.nn. Api; NR s.nn. Api, Abbi, Æbbi
Ari. Found in Old Danish as Ari, and in OW. Norse as the by-name Ari. From OW. Norse ari "eagle". This name may also be understood as a short form of names in Arn-, Arinn- Ærn-, Ærinn-. Occurs as a personal name in the nominative form ari. GB p. 7 s.n. Ari; NR s.nn. Ari
Atsurr, Özurr, Azurr. Originally a by-name for "AntswaruR", "he who answers", which may have the sense of "answering an insult, avenger". The name is common in Norway in the form Özurr and two of the Icelandic Landnámsmenn carried the name as well. The name has been found in Swedish. Danish runic inscriptions with this appearing as a personal name include äsur, asur, atsor, atsur, atsir and Latinized forms Acerus, Acerus, Ascer. Norman forms include Aszor, Adsor, Azor. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Azor, Azer, Ascer, Aschéri, Asceri, Aschur. GB pp. 8, 17 s.n. Azurr, Özurr; FJ pp. 36-37 s.n. Atsurr
Baggi. Originally a by-name from OW. Norse baggi "bag, pack, bundle" or may also be "beggar, vagrant". Found in Old Danish as Baggi, in Old Swedish as Bagge, and in OW. Norse as Baggi. Found as both a personal name and a by-name in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Runic examples include the nominative form baki, the genitive form baka and the accusative form baka, although these may instead represent the name Banki. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Bagge, Baghe. FJ p 45 s.n. Baggi; NR s.n. Baggi
Bak. Originally a by-name, "back". Found in a few Norwegian examples. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Basche. FJ p. 45 s.n. Bak
Balkr, Balki, Bálki. Originally a by-name related to Modern Norwegian balk, "confusion", or else from the Old English noun balca, "balk". Balki and Bálki are weak side-forms. Bálki appears once in West Scandinavian, as a personal name among the Landnámsmenn of Iceland, and appears as a place-name element in both Iceland and Norway. Not recorded in East Scandinavian. GB p. 8 s.n. Bálki; FJ pp. 46 s.n. Balki
Balli. Found as both personal names and by-names in Old Danish as Balli and in Old Swedish as Balle. Occurs in OW. Norse as the by-name Balli. From the OW. Norse adjective ballr "dangerous, hazardous, risky, terrible, bold, brave, daring" or from OW. Norse böllr "ball". Runic examples include the nominative forms bali and balin. FJ p. 46 s.n. Balli; NR s.n. Balli
Barði. Originally a by-name meaning a specific type of ship. Found in Iceland and Norway, with a few instances found in Denmark, for instance the Latin form Bartho. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Bardi, also appears in the place-names Barthwait and Barthtwayt. GB p. 8 s.n. Barði; FJ pp. 47-48 s.n. Barði
Barkr, Börkr, Barki. Originally a by-name, "bark" related to Old Icelandic börkr (genitive barkar). One of the Icelandic Landnámsmenn was named Börkr, and a few other occurrences in West Scandinavian. Bark is found as a by-name in Sweden, and Barki is also seen as a side-form of this name. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Barch, Barc, Bark. FJ pp. 48 s.nn. Barkr, Börkr, Barki; NR s.n. Barkviðr
Belgr. Originally a by-name related to Old Icelandic belgr (genitive belgjar) "skin, skin-bag, bellows", used to mean "dry, withered old man". Found as a West Scandinavian name and also as an Anglo-Scandinavian name. FJ pp. 51 s.n. Belgr
Bíldr, Billi. Originally a by-name from Old Icelandic bíldr, "blade". The name is as a personal name of fictional characters in West Scandinavia, for example in Hrómundar saga Gripssonar ch. 1 and in Örvar-Odds saga Bíldr is listed as a berserker in ch. 14. It is also found frequently as a by-name. It may also occur in the character named Bildus in Saxo Grammaticus' Gesta Danorum and as both a by-name and a place-name in Denmark. Billi is found in one Norwegian place-name with a few instances in Sweden and Denmark. FJ pp. 53 s.n. Bildr, Billi
Bjálfi. Found in OW. Norse as Biálfi, both as a personal name and as a by-name. From OW. Norse bjálfi "fur, pelt". Found in the runic accusative case form biafa. GB p. 8 s.n. Bjálfi; NR s.n. Biálfi
Bjórr. Found in Old Danish as Biaver, in Old Swedish as the by-name Biur and in the OW. Norse by-name Bjórr. From OW. Norse bjórr "beaver". Occurs as a personal name in the runic nominative form [biur] and the accusative form bior. FJ p. 54 s.n. Bjórr; NR s.n. Biúrr
Blakkr, Blakki. Originally a by-name with both strong and weak forms, found throughout Scandinavia. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Blacher and the place-name Blaketoft. FJ pp. 56-57 s.nn. Blakkr, Blakki
Blár. Originally a by-name, this from the verb blása, "to blow". Recorded in West Scandinavian. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Blasse, Blase. FJ pp. 57 s.n. Blási
Bleikr, Bleiki. Originally a by-name with both strong and weak forms, both of which are found in OW. Norse. Found in Old Danish and Old Swedish as Blek, and in OW. Norse as Bleikr, occurring in each of these areas as both a personal name and as a by-name. From the OW. Norse adjective bleikr "pale, white". Runic examples include the nominative forms bel[e]ik[r], [blikr] and the accusative form bleik. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Blaic, Blayk, Bleik. FJ pp. 57 s.n. Bleikr, Bleiki; NR s.nn. BlæikR
Blesi blaze, as on a horse. Originally a by-name meaning "white spot on a horse's forehead, blaze", derived from the OW. Norse *bles "blaze" (compare with OW. Norse blesóttr "with a blaze on the forehead"). Related to the modern Icelandic blesa "blaze, mare with the blaze on the forehead" (compare with Blesa). The name is found as a nickname for one of the Icelandic Landnámsmenn. Appears in one Swedish runic inscription in the nominative form blisi and possibly in some Swedish place-names. Used as an Anglo-Scandinavian personal name which appears in the place-names Blasebi and Blesebi. FJ pp. 58 s.n. Blesi; NR s.nn. Blesa, Blesi"